“Fascism” is a term to describe a totalitarian political philosophy. This ideology stresses the unity of the state and the individuals within it into a single entity or an “organic whole”. In other words, it advocates collectivism and seeks to set up a collaborative nation in accordance with extreme nationalism and conservatisms. Other elements of fascism that the historians have identified include anti-Semitism (Jews or Arabs), racism, anti-communism, anti-liberalism and populism (total subordination and loyalty to the leader of state as they are the true saviors that seeks to glorify the nation and it’s people, for example Adolph Hitler who promised to get rid of the Semites to solve the Jewish Problem to Reich and the rest of Europe). Fascism was also related to militarism and aggressiveness. It was (and is) also used carelessly as a swearword by the general public to describe something “cruel, unscrupulous, arrogant, obscurantist, anti-liberal and anti-working-class”.
Before the 20th century, there was no significant fascist movement. However in 1894 a full-scale fascism was created in an incident known as Dreyfus Affair in which conservatives allied with the monarchies, as well as the rivals of the republican government, against the left-wing heirs of French revolutionary values who stood up for the Jewish Officer Alfred Dreyfus who were charged with treason. A radical political called Action Française group was born, much like the Nazis and Fascists; they kept a brutal youth organization and developed their own political ideology. Since then there has been a wave of anti-Jew sentiment in France.
This extreme right-wing ideology was further shaped and coined after the First World War. The term was first used by Italian dictator Benito Mussolin to describe his political movement and philosophy of his regime from 1922 to 1942. . Fascism basically comes from the Latin word fasces. It was an Anceint roman symbol that depicted a bundle of rods tied around an axe; the idea portrayed was that unity is powerful and strong.
Other examples of fascist regime included Hitler’s Nazi Germany, Franco’s Spain and Portugal’s New State. Though they are in some way different, they no doubt share a common characteristic-they are all authorinarian in nature.
In economy, fascism could be seen as a compromise between commnuism and laissez-faire capitalism. In case that you are puzzled, fascism is opposed to communism and rejected it’s doctrines as a whole. The Fascists were opposed of Communists’ materialistic ideal and “class struggle” and that they preserved capitalism ( by accepting private ownership of people) but not a laissez-faire capitalism in which only a small class of people benefited. Marxism was the complete abolition of class and private property and set up a new state based on equality. Hence from here we can see that the fascists are pro middle class as they seek the support of this bulk of population. In economy, fascism can be called corporatism because the government tied the interests of the industries and other economic corporations to the state
Fascism affirmed and preserved traditional values and talked about restoring to the current society poisoned by liberalism. Traditional social ideology, such as "machismo", family values, religious faith, patriotism, social structure, honor, and traditional hard work some of which the communists opposed of because they believed in equality of all gender and races. Fascism is also anti-atheism and embraced religion which the Marxist called “the opium of people”. In this 1937 article on education in Germany states that “Life comes from God and returns to God” and that …..(People losing) contact with life when they (the people) lose contact with God”.
One important factor to the popularity of fascism is the fascist politicians’ penchant for mass appeal. A fascist candidate can promise you almost anything at any moment (but it is not certain whether the promise will be fulfilled).However, it doesn’t mean that many people were interested in the fascists’ radical ideology. The reason why it won hearts of thousands is because of another factor called “negative cohesion”. The fascist hated communism and this obviously won the support of middle class and the capitalist class who shared the same fear with the fascists-the chaotic situation after the revolution in Russian and expropriation of their private property. Fascists also seek to exploit the anger of people of the humiliation at the defeat after the First World War and the disappointment of the democratic government failing to deal with economic crisis, namely the Great Depression.
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