China is the most populated country in the world, more than 20 percent of the world’s population live here. 56 different races live in the third largest country in the world. With a history of more than six centuries, China has been well known for the Four Great Invention of Ancient China. After the fall of Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen was founded. Then the Civil war between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party broke out, however it was disturbed y the Japanese Invasion which led to the collaboration of the two parties. After winning the war against the Japanese, the Civil War in China continued. The war ended 4 years later with the Chinese Communist Party winning the war. And the People’s Republic of China was established on 1st of October, 1949.
Structure of GovernmentChina is governed by a communist party, the Chinese Communist Party. Hence, China is known as a communist state, however there are also eight other minor political parties working together with the Chinese Communist Party. The term of office for the posts is five years and it can only be served for two consecutive terms. The highest organ in China is the National People’s Congress, which can have the rights to make decisions and choose the President, Vice President of People’s republic of China, as well as the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate.
The Congress is elected from every provinces and autonomous regions, this is also known as democratic centralism. Once the President is elected, he will nominate the Premier, and the Premier will nominate the members of the State Council, and the posts will be reviewed by the congress in order to hold their positions.In the National People’s Congress, there is another committee called the Standing Committee comprising of the Chairman, Vice Chairpersons and the Secretary-General, which are elected by the congress.
The State Council comprises of the Premier, Vice Premiers, State Councilors and the Ministers, the State Council can carry out economic management and other powers granted by the Congress. The post of President can only be removed upon the decision of the National People’s Congress, and the posts of Premier and the Ministers can be removed by the President.
Level of developmentDuring the first few years after 1949, the percentage of population living in urban areas increased gradually. Although the Great Leap Forward has caused a dramatic increase of urban population, it had caused widespread famine and shortage of food. Fortunately, after the economy reform in the late 1970s, China has adopted a new policy of capitalist structure of economy thus increasing the living standards. This has also caused dramatic changes in the country and more people are getting richer. Economy reform would mean opening up market to foreign investors and this is known as “Socialism with China characteristic”.
Before the economic reform, more than half of the population are considered poor, the reform has lowered the percentage of poverty rate to 8%. The major sectors in China are agriculture and technology, being the largest rice export country in the world, agriculture played an important in China’s economy. Unlike the technology sector in China, agriculture can be affected by natural disasters which will cause a decrease in production, this can caused a major gap between the rural and the urban area, hence widening the gap between the rich and the poor.
Currently, China is ranked 81 out of 177 countries in Human Development Index done by the United Nations. The living standards of living has increased remarkably noted by the fact that almost the whole population has enough food. Now in ordinary Chinese families, modern furniture and appliances can be seen, which best shows modernization in China.
Will political structure of China work in other countries?China has a rather different political structure compared to Soviet Union or other communist states, Chinese has adopted a free-market strategy unlike the communist form of economic in the Marxism-Leninism Theory. Having lesser state-owned enterprises and encouraged foreign investment has helped to raise living standards in China. And China has allowed other minor parties members to be in the National People’s Congress. “Socialism with China characteristic”, might work in poor countries in Africa which can help to generate more incomes for the population, and gradually make the country richer. However, the political structure of China might not work in European countries, North America and other highly developed countries. This is because the political structure still lacks freedom of the people which countries which are more advanced would not like. The party control over the state is rather tight when comparing itself to the democratic countries.
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