Alzheimer's disease, also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common cause of dementia, afflicting 24 million people worldwide. Alzheimer's is a degenerative and terminal disease for which there is currently no known cure although stem cell research has provided opportunities for the discovery of a form of cure or therapy.
An aneploid cell is said to undergo aneuploidy. This is defined as a change in the number of chromosomes that can lead to a chromosomal abnormality.
A blastocoel(e) or blastocele (also called blastocyst cavity,[cleavage cavity or segmentation cavity) is the fluid-filled central region of a blastocyst.
The blastocyst is the structure formed in early embryogenesis, after the formation of the blastocoel, but before implantation.
A Cell resulting from the replication and division of a single parent cell.
Diabetes mellitus (often simply diabetes), is a syndrome characterized by disordered metabolism and inappropriately high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) resulting from either low levels of the hormone insulin or from abnormal resistance t insulin's effects coupled with inadequate levels of insulin secretion to compensate.
DNA is the blueprint for the individuality of an organism. The organism relies upon the information stored in its DNA for the management of every biochemical process. The life, growth and unique features of the organism depend on its DNA. The segments of DNA which have been associated with specific features or functions of an organism are called genes.
These are the electrical signals which travel along neurons and are generated by means of a chemical reaction.
An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In humans, it is called an embryo from the moment of fertilisation until the end of the 8th week, where after it is instead called a foetus.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops.
A person who studies ethics. Hence a student of ethics or a devotee of ethical ideas.
A eukaryote is an organism whose cells are organized into complex structures enclosed within membranes.
Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy), is fusion of gametes to produce a new organism of the same species
A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate, after the embryonic stage and before birth.
A code for characteristic
The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. The gonads in males are the testes and the gonads in females are the ovaries.
In embryology, the gonadal ridge (or genital ridge) is the precursor to the gonads.
A number of abnormal conditions affecting the heart and the blood vessels in the heart.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent
Insulin is an animal hormone whose presence informs the body's cells that the animal is well fed, causing liver and muscle cells to take in glucose and store it in the form of glycogen, and causing fat cells to take in blood lipids and turn them into triglycerides. In addition it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the woman's womb, in vitro.
Mammals (clas Mammalia) are vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the brain.
The environment of a very small, specific area.
Mitosis is the process by which a cell duplicates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus, in order to generate two, identical, daughter nuclei.
Multipotent progenitor cells can give rise to several other cell types, but those types are limited in number. An example of a multipotent stem cell is a hematopoietic cell — a blood stem cell that can develop into several types of blood cells, but cannot develop into brain cells or other types of cells.
Undifferentiated cells that form the blastema, which precedes regeneration in planarians.
Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints. This is caused by abnormal wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints and the destruction or decrease of synovial fluid that lubricates those joints.
The compound formed when oxygen from the lungs combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells. This breaks down to form haemoglobin and oxygen in the blood capillaries.
Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills and speech.
Postnatal is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks. The period is also known as postpartum period and, less commonly, puerperium.
The placenta is an organ which forms from the embryo during pregnancy. Its function is to filter food substances (such as glucose) and antibodies from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood and waste substances such as urea from the baby’s blood to the mother’s blood from which it can then be excreted.
Planaria (family Planariidae) are common freshwater, non-parasitic flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria.
A short ring of DNA found in the cytoplasm of cells
This is any process by which an organism might make a copy of itself.
Restriction endonuclease enzymes
Enzymes which occur naturally at the damaged sections of the DNA.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints.
Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid made from a long chain of nucleotide units.
Stem cell lines
A stem cell line is a family of constantly-dividing cells, the product of a single parent group of stem cells.
A therapeutic effect is a consequence of a medical treatment, of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.
An abnormal growth or swelling of the flesh.
A viviparous vertebrate is one in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother and not inside an egg.
A zygote is a cell that is the result of fertilization. That is, two haploid cells—usually an ovum from a female and a sperm cell from a male—merge into a single diploid cell called the zygote (or zygocyte).