Life Span: December 26, 1893 - September
Best known for: Leading the revolutionary
movement that established a Communist government in China
village leader, Tan Sitong
Mao Zedong was born on December 26 in the small village
of Shaoshan in the province of Hunan (Southeast China).
Mao was born at a time of great social, political, and cultural
change. China was feeling the stress of imperialism and
many scholars, government officials, and others were pushing
for modernizing reforms. As Euro-American imperialism harmed
an already weak Qing government, extensive discontent with
the dynastic system spread. Mao spent much of his childhood
working on the family farm, and he developed a passion for
learning during his short primary education. At the age
of sixteen, Mao left Shaoshan and traveled to the city of
Changsha, the local capital, where he signed up for middle
Mao Zedong graduated from middle school and traveled to
Beijing. There he became very involved in the May Fourth
Movement. He began publishing articles in local journals
succeeded cultural reform. Mao continued to write for local
journals in China and once again settled in Changsha where
he opened a small bookstore in 1920. Mao became one of the
first members of the new Chinese Communist Party (CCP.)
He began working to organize labor unions and groups and
became an important outline in local politics.
Mao received the title of “Chairman” of the
Communist Central Committee, a title that had not existed.
Chairman of the Politburo made him unchallenged leader of
the CCP. The final surrender of Japan after the American
bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought the Sino-Japanese
War to a close. The CCP had established a foothold in Manchuria,
which their Russian allies had allowed them to occupy after
the Sino-Japanese War. The Chinese civil war comes to an
end. The Nationalist government escapes to the island of
Taiwan and sets up government there. On the mainland Mao
Zedong, leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Mao
claims the establishment of the People's Republic of China
(PRC) and moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing.
The North Korean launched an unpleasant on South Korea.
The war ended in 1953. Mao encouraged people to express
their positive opinions to be open and also about the government.
As well as delivering his famous “hundred flowers”
speech. Those who had followed Mao’s support to let
a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought
were arrested and either imprisoned or sent to labor camps.
Mao created a new economic program called “The Great
Leap Forward.” Mao’s program promoted labor-
exhaustive production that was less dependent on technology
and expensive machinery in order to take advantage of China’s
huge labor supply. Mao’s plan promoted united farming
organized in peasant communes. The goal was to increase
manufacture at all levels through a program to China’s
exclusive economic and social structure. The terrible failure
of Mao’s plan further stressed relations between China
and the Soviet Union. This resulted in a permanent break
between the two powers, such as poor organization, poor
harvests, unrealistic development, and a lack of communicating
between rural areas and urban areas led to famine and an
extreme drop in manufacture. Mao yielded party leadership
to other well-known members of the CCP. Mao remained a well-known
member of the CCP but withdrew from immediate participation
in policy making.
In part an attempt to regain power and in part as a way
to repair the revolutionary spirit of the people. Mao launched
the Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Mao
mobilized young adults and students from China to serve
as “Red Guards,” also known as agents of the
Revolution. The Red Guards wanted to put out and root out
old traditions. The movement resulted in terror and violence,
as the country was thrown into chaos.
Mao allowed DENG Xiaoping, the first years of the Cultural
Revolution, one of the reformers detached from party leadership.
On September 9, MAO Zedong died at the age of 81.
or Mao Tse-tung, was the oldest child of a relatively prosperous
peasant family, and born on December 26, 1893in a village called
Shaoshan in Xiangtan County , Hunan province. Mao had two brothers,
Mao Zemin and Mao Zetan, and a sister, Mao Zehong. Mao's mother
died in the autumn of 1919; his father Mao Shunshen died within
a few months, in January 1920. His father was a strict enforcer
and Mao continuously rebelled against his authority.
enrolled in the Tongshan Higher Primary School When he was eight
years old. Mao was six years older than the other students,
and his ragged clothes and country manners were very embarassing
for him. His early education was mostly in the Confucian classics
of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature. Early teachers
also exposed him to the ideas of progressive Confucian idesa
such as K’ang Yu-wei. After only five years of school,
at the age of thirteen his father had him return to the farm
to work in the fields. His ancestors migrated from Jiangxi during
the Ming Dynasty, and had settled there as farmers. Chi-mei,
his mother, was a very devoted Buddhist. Due to his family's
relative wealth, his father was able to send him to school and
later to Changsha for more advanced schooling.
to read. He took a passenger ship to Changsha, where he was
admitted to middle school and began reading newspapers. He mostly
liked historical novels having to do with disobedience and different
military heroes. Mao continued to study on his own and at age
sixteen left home to complete his elementary education in the
Hunanese capital of Changsha. During the 1911 Revolution, Mao
enrolled as a soldier in a local army in Hunan which fought
on the side of the revolution. Once the Qing Dynasty had been
effectively overthrown, Mao left the army and returned to school.
works on Western philosophy. He was also significantly influenced
by liberal newspapers and by journals such as New Youth, while
in Changsha, which was founded by revolutionary leader Chen
Duxiu. In 1918, after graduating from the First Provincial Normal
School of Hunan, Mao traveled with Professor Yang Changji, his
high school teacher and future father-in-law, to Beijing during
the May Fourth Movement in 1919. In Beijing, he also met and
married his first wife, named Yang Kaihui. She was a Beijing
University student and the daughter of Mao’s high school
teacher. When Mao was 14 his father had, unknown to him, arranged
for him to marry a local girl. Moa Zedong had 3 wives. Yang
Kaihui (1920–1930), He Zizhen (1930–1937), and Jiang
Qing (1939–1976). Eventually, in the spring of 1913, Mao
resolved to become a teacher.
1, 1949, the walls of Tiananmen Mao Zedong declared "The
Chinese had stood up!" after the attempt to reform China.
Monarchist Kang Youwei failed miserably, leaving an undamaged
and dishonest Qing to rule for a few more years before the republican
Sun Yat-sen. Mao Zedong made the difference. The devastation
of Western nations and Japan influenced China, and there was
no pride or peace left in the Chinese. In 1950 China became
the master of its destiny. All Western and Japanese past was
laid to rest. Mao Zedong once said, "The east is red!"
What he meant was that China’s messenger in a period of
peace and stillness, where the Chinese people is a red flare
to the rest of the world as a nation of equal rights and choices,
of where everyone has his or her rights and freedom. Mao Zedong
made bad choices later in life, forcing the Chinese to accept
and live with his errors. In the end, the legacy Mao Zedong
left behind trancend his frailties and his mistakes, though
enormous, never weaken his importance. That is how we would
want to remember the great Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong loved to swim.
- Mao studied education in college,
and wished to be remembered as a teacher.
- Mao adapted Marxist theory to China's agrarian society that peasants
rather than farm workers should lead the revolution.
- Mao was first married at age 14 by his father's arrangement, but
refused to recognize the marriage.