Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith).
Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt.
It was rooted in methods from early Islamic philosophy and Islamic science and it reflected the strong concern of Islam with social cohesion.
Islamic philosophy may be defined in a number of different ways, but the perspective taken here is that it represents the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture.
This description does not suggest that it is necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor even that it is exclusively produced by Muslims.
The Holy Islamic Sign
The Holy Quran
Islamic philosophy as the name implies refers to philosophical activity within the Islamic milieu.
The main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself (especially ideas derived and interpreted from the Quran), Greek philosophy which the early Muslims inherited as a result of conquests when Alexandria, Syria and Jundishapur came under Muslim rule, along with pre-Islamic Iranian and Indian philosophy.