The Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions throughout the world trying to reverse effect of Global Warming. The Kyoto Protocol separates almost 160 countries in to two categories: Developed and Developing. In the protocol it requires all developed countries to reduce their greenhouse emissions by at least 5 %. Every developed country must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory. Any developed country that fails to meet its Kyoto obligation will be penalized. Developing countries are encouraged to reduce their emissions but are not required to do so. This treaty was negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, and was made available for signing in 1998. A total of 169 countries have ratified the agreement. Notable exceptions include America and Australia. Other countries such as India and China have ratified but are not required to follow the obligations because of their massive population. In summary the Kyoto Protocol aims to lower the overall emissions of 6 greenhouse gases- carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs.
There are not many other protocols trying to fight Global Warming, but there are others such as the Montreal Protocol which is trying to stop the depletion of the ozone layer by reducing The amount of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) used in everyday life. The main problem about the Kyoto Protocol is that two major greenhouse gas emitting countries( U.S. and Australia) have not ratified making the global impact minimal.