The injection of semen into the uterus of a woman through non-sexual means in order to fertilize egg cells.
Organic waste that is liable to decay, such as food waste and agricultural waste.
A hollow sphere of cells formed by repeated divisions of a fertilized egg. It is made up of roughly 100-200 cells.
Herbicides that generally affect all plants that come into contact with it (contrast with selective herbicides that affect certain plants only)
The formation of a hybrid cell by fusing two distinct cells
Methods of preventing pregnancy (birth control). This can be achieved by medication, intra-uterine devices or by removing the sperm duct or Fallopian tubes.
Fertilization of a plant from another plant of a different genetic species
Deoxyribose nucleic acid
A biological molecule that contains genetic instructions for the creation of cells.
Refer to “Deoxyribose nucleic acid”
An organism that is in the early stages of growth and development
A protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up chemical reactions, without being affected by the reaction
A specific order in which structural components of DNA are arranged, to form a particular gene or codon
Green Fluorescence Protein
A gene that gives off a greenish glow when exposed to blue or ultraviolet light
Refer to “Interleukin-4 Protein”
A protein that stimulates the immune system to produce mast cells, T-cells and B-cells, all of which are vital to a healthy immune system. Hence it boosts the immune system and makes it stronger. Abbreviated IL-4
In Vitro Fertilisation
A method of assisted reproduction that artificially combines an egg with a sperm. If the egg is fertilized, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus where is is hoped that it will implant into the uterine lining and further develop.
A gene that is used to identify cells that have taken up the DNA fragments. Marker genes include antibiotic resistance genes or fluorescence genes.
Derived from a single egg. Monozygotic twins are genetically identical twins that originate from a developing embryo that has divided to form 2 separate but identical embryos
An early stage of development where embryo forms a ball of cells develop. It consists of 16 cells and is mulberry-shaped. The embryo is still enclosed by the zona pellucida.
A circular ring of DNA that can be used to transfer genes from one organism to another. They are distinct from the normal bacterial genome and are nonessential for cell survival.
A generic cell from which other types of cells, like red blood cells and white blood cells, can develop.
Methods of transmission of the gene concerned.
A translucent, elastic, noncellular layer of a human egg that acts as a protective coating.
A fertilized egg that is the result of two haploid nuclei during sexual reproduction