Abduct: not the kidnapping kind but moving a limb away from the body
Achilles tendonitis: inflammation of the Achilles tendon
Acromio Clavicular joint: acromio-clavicular joint or A/C jpoint connects your shoulder to the rest of the body.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament: one of four ligaments that connects the bones of the knee joint.
Anterior Talofibular Ligament: ligament in front of the ankle.
Arthrogram: an x-ray of the inside of a joint.
Arthroscopy: looking into the inside of a joint
Bursa: fluid filled sac around joint.
Bursitis: inflammation of the fluid-filled sac
Carbohydrates: body converts these to glucose and is used for energy.
Cardiovascular: heart and blood vessels
Chafing: irritation of the skin
Chondromalacia Patella:also known as housemaid's knee. A common cause of knee pain. Pain is from poor alignment of the kneecap.
Chronic: lasting a long time
Collagen:the main protein in connective tissue
Collateral Ligaments:The collateral ligaments are the ligaments on either side of the knee joint.
Colles Fracture:distal radius fracture or fracture of the radius bone near the wrist).
Contraction:A muscle becomes thickened and shortened
Concussion:an injury to the brain which may result in loss of conciousness
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: an irritation or pressure on the medial nerve at the wrist.
Core stability:the ability to control the position and movement of the central portion of the body.
Core strength:The muscles of the torso stabilize the spine.
Corticosteroid:Powerful steroid medication that reduces inflammation and can suppress the immune system.
Cryotherapy: ice therapy
CT Scan: Computed tomography. A scan that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the body.
Debridement: The medical name for removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue.
Defibrillator:medical device used in the defibrillation of the heart.
Degenerative Disc Disease: changes in the discs of the spine in any part of the spine.
Degenerative Joint Disease: wear and tear of joint cartilage sometimes accompanied by an overgrowth of bone.
Dehydration:your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should
Diaphysis:main or mid section (shaft) of a long bone
Disc:cartilage between the vertebrae
Disease:incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body
Dislocation: abnormal separation of two bones
Dysfunction: abnormal function
Echocardiogram: picture of the heart using sonogram or ultrasound
incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body :
Effusion:abnorma fluid collection in a body cavity or tissue.
Electrocardiogram: a picture of the electrical function of the heart
Electromyogram:test that measure electrical output of muscles.
Electrotherapy: the use of electric stimulation to encourage healing
Epicondyle:a place on the bone where muscle and tendon attach
Epicondylitis: inlammation of the epicondyle, such as tennis elbow or golfer's elbow.
Epiphysis: the rounded end of a long bone.
Etiology: the cause of something
Eversion: being turned outwards
Eversion ankle sprain:ankle sprain caused by tearing or over-stretching the tibiofibular syndesmosis ligaments.
Extension: to make longer
Extensor tendons - of the wrist: opposite to flexor tendons. extends the wrist.
External bone stimulator: an external device that delivers a small electric current to stimilate bone growth. Used after spinal fusion surgery.
External Rotation: To turn away from the center of the body.
Extrinsic: caused by outside influences
Fascia:connective tissue that surrounds muscle
Femur: thigh bone
Fibula: the smaller leg bone
Flexor:the skeletal muscle that contracts to bend a joint.
Fluoroscopy:an x-ray that takes real time pictures of a person
Fracture: a break usually in a bone
Gadolinium: dye used in an MRI
Glenohumeral:the shoulder joint
Glenoid:the shallow socket in the sholder blade
Glycogen:stores of readily available glucose found in the liver.
Golfer's Elbow:pain on the inside of the elbow caused by tendonitis.
Groin strain:muscles of the inner thighs are stretched beyond their normal length.
Haemarthrosis:bleeding in the joint.
Haematom: collection of blood under the skina
Heart disease: different diseases that affect the heart.
Heat Pack: a warm or hot hpack to help healing.
Hernia:a weakness in the abdominal muscle so the underlying organs protude.
Hip Pointer: a hip injury usually caused by a collision in football, where there is bleeding and bruising in the abdominal muscles and hip areas.
Hot Pack:A pack that is hot and help healing when placed on affected area.
Hyaline Cartilage: one of 3 types of cartilage(others are elastic and fibrocartilage) and the most abundant. Is found in ears,nose and at the ends of bones. As cartilage has no blood vessels it cannot renew itself.
Hydrotherapy: Water therapy. Reduces
Ice therapy: Using ice packs to reduce swelling, inflammation and pain.
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome: iliotibial band is a thick band of tissue that runs from the thigh to the tibia. From overuse this band becomes inflammed and irritated.
Immobilisation: Not moving.
Impingement syndrome: usually refers to the shoulder. A piece of tissue "catches" in the bone.
Incision:a cut into the body by a doctor.
Inflammation: the way a body reactions to infection or irritation. Redness and swelling.
Internal Rotation: turning the body part towards the center of the body.
Intramedullary: inside the middle of the bone
Inversion: turned inwards
Inversion ankle sprain:The most frequent ankle sprain. this occurs when the foot is forced to turn inward.
Isokinetic exercise:a test to imrove and measure muscle strength.
Joint: an area where two or more bones meet.
Joint Capsule: an encloed sac covering a joint, filled with fluid.
Kyphosis:curvature of the upper spine
Lateral:to the side
Lateral Collateral Ligament:ligament on the side of the knee.
Lesion: caused by anything that damages the body tissues.
Ligament: tough fiberous band that attaches bone to bone.
Lumbar Vertebra:bones in the lower back
Lumbo-Sacral:where the lumbar vertebra and sacrum meet.
Malleolus: The bony bump on either side of the ankle.
Manipulation: passivly moving a joint or limb.
Massage: rubbing or applying pressure to an area to increase blood flow or release tension from muscle.
Meniscectomy: cut out the meniscus
Meniscus: cartilage in knee
Metaphysis: the growing part of a long bone.
Metatarsal: small bones in the foot
MRI: Magnetic Resonant Imaging scan. Scans tissue but not bone as it does not "see" bone well and can miss a fracture.
Muscle: Attaches to bone with tendons. Produces movement.
Nerve: bundle of fibers that uses chemical and electrical signals to transmit sensory and motor information from one body part to
Neuralgia: nerve pain
Neurologist: A doctor that studies the nervous system.
Neurology: the study of the nervous system.
Neuromuscular: affecting both nerves and muscels.
Neuropathy :any disease that affects any part of the nervous system but usually refers to the peripheral nervous system.
NSAIDs: non-steroidal antiinfammatory drugs. Usually given to reduced inflmmation and pain.
Orthopedics: a branch of surgery concerned with the musculoskeletal system.
Orthotic: medical field concerned with the use and manufacture of devices that support or correct the function of a limb.
Osgood Schlatters: inflammation of the knee.
Osteoarthritisis: a joint disease caused by the breakdown and loss of the cartilage
Osteochondrosis:defective bone formation in the growing part of the skeleton.
Osteomyelitis: infection in the bone.
Osteoporosis: bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced.
Overuse Injury: an injury caused by repeated use.
Paresthesia: change in sensation in an area of the body, "pins and needles"
Physiotherapist: health care professional who assesses physical function and helps to restore and maintain as normal a function.
Pathology:study of diseases and their causes.
Physiological:an organisms normal function and health.
Plantar Fascia:The ligament that connects the heel bone to the ball of the foot.
Plantarflexion:bending your foot up.
Posterior Cruciate Ligament: ligament of the knee
Proprioception: the body's ability to maintain tone in muscles so we can stand and move
PRICE : P, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.
Pronation: Palms down
Referred Pain:an unpleasant sensation localized to an area separate from the site of the causative injury or other painful stimulation.
Repetitive Strain Injury: also called repetitive stress injury, is any of a loose group of conditions from overuse of the computer, guitar, knife or similar motion or tool.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints.
Rotator Cuff: an anatomical term given to the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder.
Rupture: the tearing apart of a tissue
Sacro-Iliac Joint: the joint between the sacrum, at the base of the spine, and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined by ligaments.
Sacrum: a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones.
Scapula: the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
Sciatica: pain caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that are branches of the sciatic nerve.
Sensorimotor system: the sensory, motor, and central integration and processing components involved in maintaining joint homeostasis during bodily movements (functional joint stability)
Shin splints: a general term used to refer to a painful condition in the shins.
Spondylitis: an inflammation of a vertebra.
Sprain: an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden over stretching (for the muscle injury, see strain).
Sterno Clavicular Joint: saddle-type joint that provides free movement of the clavicle in nearly all planes.
Strain: an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching.
Stress Fracture: one type of incomplete fractures in bones.
Subluxation: an incomplete or partial dislocation.
Supination: the rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly, or palm facing up.
Syndesmosis: An joint where the bones are joined together by a ligament.
Synovial Fluid: a thick, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.
Synovial Joint: the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body.
Tendon:fibrous band that attaches muscle to bone
Tendonitis: inflammation of the tendon
Tennis Elbow:lateral epicondylitis. A common cause of elbow pain
TENS:Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator, used to stimulate nerves to help reduce pain.
Tibia:larger bone of the leg
Ultrasound: test using sound waves
Vertebrae: bone of the spine