We know that nuclear radiation is spread when there is a nuclear explosion. However, there are different types of explosions. These explosions consist of airbursts, waterbursts, and groundbursts. Each of these upsurges are meant to bring the most harm possible
The most common blast is the groundburst. This explosion is meant to destroy the target. This type of blast usually does not carry nuclear radiation as far as an airburst or waterburst. The radiation spread by a ground explosion is mainly concentrated around the blast site. However some small particles may ride the wind and land miles away.
The main destructive power of a groundburst is pressure (air shock) and thermal radiation. When a nuke hits the ground the there is a gargantuan explosion. Four and one-half seconds after this explosion, with a 1.3 mile estimated radius from ground zero; the pressure is 20 pounds per square inch. This is double the air pressure we feel everyday. When the bomb hits, there is 1/10 of a second before the bomb explodes. After another fraction of a second, a high pressurized wave of compressed air moves out from the blast point at a high speed. This wave behaves like an unbreakable wall of compressed air, destroying everything in its path. In approximately 10 seconds, this wave of ultimate destruction will spread out about three miles. In 50 short seconds, this wall would have spread 12 miles and achieving rates of 1,150 feet per second.
Thermal radiation and heat can also prove to be very harmful. Thermal radiation is emitted right after the explosion. This radiation can cause skin to burn. If eyes are exposed, thermal radiation could cause temporary blindness. Articles of clothing may block thermal radiation, but if it comes in large quantities clothing will not stop the thermal radiation from burning you. When there is a nuclear explosion, the fireball can reach up to 100,000,000 degrees Celsius. This is equivalent to the interior of the sun.
If a nuke is detonated in the air, this is called an airburst. However, the airburst consists of two parts. There is the airburst and the high-altitude burst. The airburst must be between 2,850 feet and 100,000 feet. An airburst may produce thermal radiation up to 12 miles away. Nuclear radiation will also travel great distances. Only concrete containing iron or barium would provide protection from one mile away. The object of an airburst is to spread radiation further than radiation could with a ground blast.
Besides ground bursts and airbursts, there is a high altitude burst. A high altitude burst must take place at at least 100,000 feet in the air. Since the air higher up is less dense, the energy from the bomb will not focus on air shock. Instead, this energy is used to radiate thermal energy. However, since the explosion takes place high up, the residual radiation will not be significant on the ground. In other words, radiation will not be acummilated in high amounts on the ground. A good factor is that electrons and ions at these altitudes will affect the radio and radar signals. This type of burst may also cooperate with the Earth's very own magnetic field to combust into a gigantic electromagnetic field. Unprotected electronic equipment under the blast site may be destroyed.
Underwater and underground bursts have the similar effects. In undergroundbursts and underwaterbursts the shock will feel like a earthquake. In an underwaterburst the bomb will cause major waves. In an underground burst the initial radiation is not as much as in an air burst. However the residual radiation is absorbed into the ground. This radiation will spread into plants and into the soil. It may even reach the groundwater. In an underwater burst the spread of residual radiation is worse. A waterburst can contaminate up to 7,000 square miles of water. This water will bring harm to those who drink it.