We visited the local
Hospitals, meet various Doctors and nurses and collected the following
details about giving the right kind of First Aid.The information collected was
circulated in School and our rural community. Everybody was encouraged to have
their own first Aid Kits.
WHAT YOUR FIRST AID
KIT SHOULD CONSIST OF?
# First Aid Manual
(clearly explains how to handle basic problems # Basic Bandages (assorted
adhesive bandages, athletic tape, moleskin) #
(aspirin, antiseptic, antacid tablets) # Basic First Aid Tools (tweezers,
small mirror, razor blade)
THE EXTRAS (FOR LONG
Additional Bandages (gauze pads, ace bandages, butterfly
Additional Drugs/Lotions (burn ointment, skin lotion,
Additional First Aid Tools (sling, basic splint, instant ice
The first aid required
during delicate situations like heatstroke, accident, burns and bleeding
was furnished to our neighboring rural communities .Talk shows by Dr.
Vinod Wadhwa & Dr Tandon on how to deal with medical emergencies
during crucial moments was the highlight.
1. Never put butter or greasy ointments on
a burn. They seal heat into the wound and may cause infection.
Always seek medical attention if...
* Victim is a child or elderly
Burn covers more than one body part
* Burn is located on any sensitive
area of the body (hands, face, feet, etc.)
* Burn is third degree
Burn is caused by chemicals
FIRST DEGREE BURNS
First degree burns damage the
outer layer of skin.
2. mild pain
Immediately submerge the affected part in cold water.
Hold it under cold running water, or place cold, wet cloths on
it until the pain decreases.
3. Cover with a clean, dry
gauze dressing for
SECOND DEGREE BURNS
Second degree burns go through to
the second layer of skin.
2. rough, red skin
1. Immerse in cold water or have cold, wet
cloths applied to it immediately.
2. Gently blot area dry. Do not
rub. Rubbing may break the blister, opening it to infection.
Cover wound with dry, sterile bandage.
4. If burn is located on
arm or leg, keep limb elevated as much as possible.
degree burns should heal within a few
THIRD DEGREE BURNS
Third degree burns are less painful
than second degree burns because the nerve cells in the affected
tissue are actually destroyed, but the damage is greater. The burn
goes through to the third layer of
1. whitish or charred
1. Do not remove any clothing near
or at the site of the burn
2. Do not apply cold water or
medication to the burn.
3. Place clean, dry cloths (i.e. strips
of a clean sheet) over the damaged area.
4. If burns are on arms
or legs, keep the limbs elevated above the level of the heart.
If victim has burns on face, check frequently to make sure he is not
having difficulty breathing.
6. Get victim to a hospital at
1. Remove clothing on or near the burn area. Never pull clothing
over the head with a chemical burn. You may need to cut the
2. Wash the area thoroughly with low pressure water for
at least 20 minutes.
3. Apply a clean dressing to the area.
Get medical attention as soon as
A SIMPLE FRACTURE does not pierce through the skin. If it is not cared
for properly, it could become a compound fracture.
If a fracture is
1. check for swelling around the affected area
may be discoloration of the skin
If the victim complains of tenderness
and pain in the area or says that he felt or heard a bone snap, see a
A COMPOUND FRACTURE pierces through the skin.
Serious bleeding may occur with this kind of wound. Do not apply pressure
to a compound fracture to stop the bleeding.
What to do for a
1. Cover the injured part with a sterile pad
Apply a splint to keep the bone from causing further injury to the
3. Wait for medical help
4. Avoid moving the
victim, but keep him warm, comfortable, and
1. Apply direct
pressure. Place a clean, folded cloth over the injured area and firmly
apply pressure. If blood soaks through, do not remove it. Instead, cover
that cloth with another one and continue to apply pressure to the wound
for 7-10 minutes. If the bleeding is from the ear, place a clean bandage
over the ear, lay the victim on his side, and allow the blood to drain out
through the bandage.
2. Elevate the injury. Position the wounded part
of the body above the level of the heart if possible while you apply
3. Know the pressure points. If direct pressure and
elevation do not sufficiently slow the bloodflow, find a pressure point.
Large arteries found close to the skin's surface supply blood to the head
and to each arm and leg. The most common pressure points used during first
aid are located in the upper arms and in the creases above the upper legs.
Apply pressure to the closest pressure point to the wound so that the
artery is pressed between your fingers and the bone directly behind the
artery. If using the pressure point on a leg, you may need to use the heel
of your hand instead of your finger.
4. Resort to a tourniquet. On very
rare occasions everything listed above may fail. To prevent the victim
from dying, you should apply a tourniquet. Once a tourniquet is applied,
it should not be loosened or removed until the victim has reached medical
help. Use a tourniquet ONLY if everything listed above has failed. If you
use a tourniquet, write down somewhere on the victim the time it was
applied, so medical personnel wil know how long it has been in
Internal bleeding results when blood
vessels rupture, allowing blood to leak into body cavities. It could be a
result of a direct blow to the body, a fracture, a sprain, or a bleeding
ulcer. If a victim receives an injury to the chest or abdomen, internal
bleeding should be suspected. He will probably feel pain and tenderness in
the affected area.
Other symptoms to watch for:
1. cold, clammy
2. pale face and lips
3. weakness or fainting
7. rapid, weak, irregular
8. shortness of breath
9. dilated pupils
10. swelling or
bruising at the site of injury
The more symptoms that are experienced,
the more extensive the internal bleeding is.
WHAT TO DO FOR THE
1. Check for an open airway and begin rescue breathing if
2. Call for medical help as soon as possible and keep the
victim comfortable until help arrives.
3. The victim may rinse his
mouth with water, but DO NOT give a victim of internal bleeding anything