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### History of Math

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#### Introduction to China

China is the fourth largest country in the world with an area of 9,596,960 km2. It also has the largest population in the world with over 1.3 million billion people. It is bordered by 14 nations. There are various landscapes in China which include huge alluvial plains, grasslands, hills, mountain ranges, deltas and rivers.

Map of China

Not much is known about Chinese Mathematics before 100 BC, but there are elements which are consistent. Chinese mathematics in early times was strongly related to astronomy and the calendar. Hence many of the earliest texts also involved astronomy. Many works simply listed equations but no exact proof. In other instances, evidence was given, but declared to be an established method after some fashion. Therefore it is very hard to be certain of the actual dates of when the mathematical methods were discovered. There have been many arguments about the Chinese discovering the Pythagorean theorem.

The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a Chinese mathematics book, believed to be written in the 1st century AD or even earlier. Most scholars believe that Chinese and ancient Mediterranean mathematics had developed independently before the Nine Chapters was completed.

#### Introduction to Greece

Greece is a country in southern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan peninsula. Regarded as the cradle of western civilization and being the birthplace of democracy, philosophy, the Olympic Games and of the arts and drama, Greece has a very long and remarkably rich history during which its culture has proven to be especially influential in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Today, Greece is a developed nation, member of the European Union and a member of the Eurozone .

Map of Modern Greece

Ancient Greek mathematicians were more focused on geometry, and used geometric methods to solve problems though others used algebra. Greek mathematicians were also very interested in proving that certain mathematical ideas were right so they spent a lot of time using geometry to prove that things were always true, even though people like the Egyptians and Babylonians already knew that they were true most of the time anyway.

#### Introduction to Egypt

The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, is a Middle Eastern republic in North Africa. Egypt is the fifteenth most populous country in the world and is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most ancient and important monuments.

Map of Modern Egypt

Civilisation reached a high level in Ancient Egypt. The country was well suited for the people, with a fertile land thanks to the river Nile yet with a pleasant climate. Egypt enjoyed long periods of peace when society advanced rapidly. As the society became more complex, records and computations were required as the people started trading their goods. A need for counting arose, then writing and numerals were needed to record transactions. This gave rise to the development of mathematics in Ancient Egypt.

The ancient Egyptians were most likely the first civilisation to practice the scientific arts. The word chemistry is derived from the word Alchemy which is the ancient name for Egypt.

The Egyptians excelled in the application of mathematics. Although there is a large body of papyrus literature describing their achievements in medicine, there is hardly any records on their outstanding performance in Mathematics. However, they should have had a very advanced understanding of math because their achievements in engineering, astronomy and administration would not have been possible without it.

#### Introduction to Arabia

The area highlighted on the map is the Arabian Peninsula otherwise known as Arabia. The Arabian Peninsula is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. The Arabian peninsula is an important part of the greater Middle East, and plays a critically important geopolitical role due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Map of the Arab World

The Arabian Peninsula is part of the Arab world which consists of twenty-two countries stretching from Mauritania in the west to Oman in the east. This is where the Arabs who are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group can be found. An arab can be thought to be someone whose first language is Arabic (including any of its varieties).

When the Arabs conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt, they inherited much of the Greco-Roman mathematical heritage and did a good job of preserving it. While the Arab civilisation declined their enthusiasm for mathematics survived long enough to be passed to Christian Spain and from there to Italy and the rest of Europe. The Arabs adopted the Arabic number system which was imported from India and made significant advances in algebra.

#### Introduction to Ancient Babylonia

Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. The earliest mention of Babylon can be found in a tablet of the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC.

Map of Ancient Babylonia

The Babylonian system of mathematics was sexagesimal, or a base 60 numeral system. The Babylonians were able to make great advances in mathematics. Babylonian mathematics was, in many ways, more advanced than Egyptian mathematics. They could extract square and cube root; work with Pythagorean triples 1200 years before Pythagoras, had knowledge of pi and possibly e (the exponential function), could solve some quadratics and even polynomials of degree 8, solved linear equations and could also deal with circular measurement.

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Ancient Babylonia