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Cleopatra VII was the daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, king of Egypt. On her father’s death in 51 BC Cleopatra, then 17 or 18 years old, and her brother, Ptolemy XIII, a child of about 12 years, succeeded jointly to the throne of Egypt with the condition that they should marry. In their third year of reign Ptolemy XIII persuaded by his advisers took sole control of the government and sent Cleopatra into exile. She rapidly gathered an army in Syria but was unable to declare her claim until the arrival at Alexandria of Julius Caesar, who then became her lover and then espoused her cause. He was for a time hard pressed by the Egyptians but eventually conquered them and in 47 BC Ptolemy XII was killed. Caesar then claimed Cleopatra queen of Egypt.
After being crowned queen Cleopatra was forced by custom to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV then about eleven years old. After settling their joint government on a secure basis she went back to Rome to where she lived a Caesar’s mistress. Cleopatra later gave birth to a son Caesarion, later Ptolemy XV; it is believed that Caesar was Cleopatra’s son’s father. After Caesar’s assassination in 44 B.C, Cleopatra was said to have poisoned her brother Ptolemy XIV.
Since Cleopatra hesitated to take sides in the civil war after Caesar’s death, Mark Antony told her to meet him to explain her behaviour. Mark fell in love with Cleopatra and he came back with her to Egypt. After Mark’s leaving from Egypt Cleopatra gave birth to twins. In 36 BC he went to the East as a commander of an expedition. On arrival he sent for Cleopatra, who then met up with him in Antioch. When they were together they married and a third child was born.
Cleopatra wanted to participate in the campaign but after believing that Mark’s conquer would be expected she held herself back and both Cleopatra and Mark fled to Alexandria. By the approach Octavian Mark, befooled by a false statement that the queen was dead he committed suicide. Hearing that Octavian planned to display her in his victory at Rome, Cleopatra killed herself, most likely by poison, or, according to an old tradition, by the bite of an asp (snake).
Hatshepsut was born in the 15 Century BC as the daughter of Tuthmose I and Aahmes both of royal decent. She was favoured over her other two siblings. After her two brothers died, she was in the situation to have the throne to herself but only when her father died. Back then having a female pharaoh was rare but probably never heard of. When Thutmose1 died his two sons automatically took the throne. From the marking on Thutmose II‘s mummy it looked like he had skin disease and he died from it after only ruling for about three or four years. Hatshepsut married Thutmose II but did not have any children with him. Although she had a child named Nefrure who was most likely the daughter of her secret lover, Senmut.
Hatshepsut was not the one to sit back and wait for her nephew to assume the throne when he would reach the appropriate age. While waiting for her nephew Hatshepsut ruled for 15 years until her death in 1458 BC. After her death, she left behind a lot more works of art and monuments than any queen before and after her death.
Hatshepsut, as a woman, had many obstacles to conquer. There was always a risk of rebellion, particularly as her bitter nephew came of age. Using misinformation and keen political skills, she skilfully jumped each barrier she faced. To control the fears of her people, she became a "king" in all statuary and relief during her time in power. She even dressed in the customary attire of male rulers: the shendyt kilt, the nemes headdress with its uraeus and khat headcloth, and the false beard. Although there were no wars during her supremacy, she proved her independence by ordering expeditions to the land of Punt, in present-day Somalia, in search of the ivory, animals, spices, gold and fragrant trees that Egyptians desired. These expeditions are well acknowledged in the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the walls of her temple. With these inscriptions are included incised representations of the journey, including humorous images of the Puntites and their queen.
To the short, thin Egyptian she was probably quite a view. Hatshepsut, in a final bid to be known as a rightful queen, constructed a fabulous temple in the Valley of the Kings, of all places, by a tall plateau at Deir-el-Bahri, across the Nile from Thebes.
Hatshepsut was a master politician, and an graceful stateswoman with enough appeal to manage an entire country for twenty years. Her charm and knowledge could carry her only so far, however. She used two procedures to ensure the authority of her position. The first was to highlight not only her relationship to Tuthmose I, but her favor from that popular ruler. She claimed to have been handpicked by her father, above her two brothers and her half-brother. In her temple are written the words of Khnum, the divine potter who sculpted the forms of the gods: “I will make you to be the first of all living creatures, you will rise as king of Upper and of Lower Egypt, as your father Amon, who loves you, did ordain”
This information has power, as other texts indicate. Her second arrogance was more doubtful, however: she claims a direct divine ancestry. As in the previous passage, she claims Amon is her father. On the walls of her tomb is inscribed a story detailing the night the Theban god Amon-Re approached Aahmes in the form of Tuthmose I.
This misinformation worked well to cement Hatshepsut's position. As Tuthmose III grew, her control grew weak. He not only resented his lack of ability, but no doubt harboured only ill will towards his step-mother's consort Senmut. Not long after his death, however, his sarcophagus was completely destroyed. The hard stone that had been carved for his funerary coffin was found in over 1,200 pieces. His mummy was never found. Hatshepsut's mummy was likewise stolen and her tomb destroyed. Only one of the canopy jars was found, the one containing her liver. After her death, it is presumed that Tuthmose III ordered the regular erasure of her name from any monument she had built, including her temple at Deir-el-Bahri. Since most of the images of her were actually males, it was convenient to simply change the name "Hatshepsut" to "Tuthmose" I, II or III wherever there was a caption. Senmut's name was also isolated. Whether Tuthmose killed Hatshepsut, Senmut and Nofrure is doubtful but likely. Since he paid little respect to her in death, it is quite likely he paid even less in life.
While this account is the most acknowledged of theories, the Hatshepsut Problem was a source of endless debate near the turn of the twentieth century. The archaeologists Edouard Naville and Kurt Sethe went head-to-head on the order of rule between the three Tuthmoses and Hatshepsut. Hypothetical timelines specify that the succession followed this order:
1. Tuthmose I
2. Tuthmose III
3. Tuthmose III and Hatshepsut, together
4. Tuthmose III alone
5. Tuthmose I and Tuthmose II
6. Tuthmose II alone
7. Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III
8. Tuthmose III alone
This succession seems as unreasonable as it is difficult,.His description follows a more sensitive series, and disproves the previously-held belief that only Tuthmose III would put his name in Hatshepsut's place. Not only was Hatshepsut's name taken off, but some of her monuments were ruined. She built two obelisks of red granite, the largest built to that point. This was a continuation of the works of her father, who was not able to finish all his structure plans. Her name appeared on the obelisks, but instead of toppling them, Tuthmose III ordered them covered in stone. Overall, Hatshepsut accomplished what no woman had before her time. She ruled the most powerful, higher society in the world, successfully, for twenty years. Even if there were some who disliked her success it will stand for ever.
The name Nefetiti means “ The beautiful one has arrived”. She lived just 300 miles south of Cairo, in a city called “Tell El Amarna”. . It’s thought that Nefertiti was most likely a far family member to Akhenaten and a preferred queen to the pharaoh. Nothing is known about the queen’s youth, but she first appears in records as Akhenaten's wife. It's assumed Akhenaten and his queen brought onward such drastic changes, that they were despised by their subjects.
Akhenaten build a place to adore Aten, the sun disk god, and named his capitol Akhetaon. This new city was only one of its kind and nothing like most ancient Egyptian cities. The temples were build with no roofs, allowing the rays of the sun to enter the sanctuary. His city had palaces along with villas for the rich, and populated almost twenty to fifty thousand villagers.
Following her husbands’ philosophy, she changed her name to Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti meaning, “The Aten is radiant of radiance [because] the beautiful one has come.” Nefertiti was more then just a queen, she supported her husband, promoted his religious thinking, and was depicted more paranoiac, rather then queenly. New conclusions are proving that Nefertiti was most likely one of Egypt’s most controlling queens to ever rule. She was exposed with the crown of a pharaoh and was depicted in scenes of war. Also a large burial place was constructed for her, thought to be a tomb well for a pharaoh. Although depicted bravely and heroically, queen Nefertiti loved and cared for her distorted and unhealthy husband.
Egyptologists also believe Akhenaten was born with many deformities that created him handicapped. Akhenaten might have had bad vision, allowing Queen Nefertiti to organize and choose many actions and situations. Not only did she live as royalty, but next to Akhenaten’s name in a symbol was hers.
Twelve years into the Amarna Period she vanishes. Little is known about her departure as well. We can only wonder what happened to her. She might have died with a sickness or basically became unfavourable to Akhenaten. These theories might be true but one that stands out more the rest is this one. Sometime during the closing of the Amarna Period a stone tablet, indicated the loss of the king, was sent in the direction of the Hittites. She asked the king to send off a son to Egypt to marry. The king of the Hittites sent a son, but was assinated on his journey to wed the queen. Might this be what brought down Nefertiti as well as the Amarna Period? Although the stone tablets expose a sob for help, they could have been from Ankhesenamun after the murder of King Tut. Another more new assumption is that she could’ve been selected co-regent of Egypt as well.
Nefertiti’s body was never found. After Akhenaten's death everything in the Amarna Period was shattered; as well as the tombs and mummies left behind. In panic of the demolition by Egyptian priests, Nefertiti’s mummy could have been brought to The Valley of the Kings. Somewhere Nefertiti might be hidden in a tomb that was formed to hide her final remains.