Network protocol is an agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. The protocol determines the following:
• the type of error checking to be used
• data compression method, if any
• how the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message
• how the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message
There are a variety of standard protocols from which programmers can choose. Each has particular advantages and disadvantages; for example, some are simpler than others, some are more reliable, and some are faster.
Protocols are created and maintained by several organizations and committees e. g. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA), International Telecommunications Union (ITU), (formerly Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique (CCITT)).