Not one of the developed countries that have oil reserves realized, that its own production isn't enough to content the interior demand, thus it had to import ever larger quantities. Then again, amongst the major oil exporters were numerous developing countries, which soon got rich from the exploitation and export to developed countries. In a part of such developing countries the oil incomes were applied to welfare programs, constructions of schools and to the universal elevation of the standard of living. In many places they started costly investments, that's how the huge desalt lodes of Saudi Arabia was built, and it was from oil money that the Great Artificial River in Libya was built — this great water-conduit transports the water hidden in the rock below the Sahara to the Mediterranean Sea region.
Oil production soon had its impact in world politics. The Middle-Eastern countries rich in oil gave considerable aid to their Arab allies, Egypt, Jordan and Syria, which suffered defeat in the six day war from Israel.
The major oil exporters brought ever larger pressure to bear through the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, or the OPEC. This organization was established in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Later Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates joined — all developing countries.
After in 1973 in the so-called war of Jom Kipur, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel, the OPEC thoroughly raised the oil prices. Many other countries agreed with the restriction of oil export, so that they could also pressurize the supporters of Israel among them the United States of America.
By the mid 1970s, most Middle-Eastern countries took their oil industry in their own hands, or at least its supervision. Their goal was to create a "new world order" by means of OPEC, an international system in which the developing world had much more influence than it had beforehand.
The policy of OPEC raised tension in the economy of the oil importing countries, and caused energy shortage at many places. Inflation speeded up at world-wide scale. By the beginning of the 1980s several developed countries increased its own production, and introduced austerity measures. All these steps — paired with the world-scale economical drop — with the decrease of demand for oil, thus lead to the fall of oil prices. Although OPEC's reign lasted for only a short period of time, its policy gave unparalleled self-confidence to a good deal of Middle-Eastern countries.
Oil was the root cause of several other conflicts. The Gulf-crisis in 1990 and the Gulf War began with Iraq declaring that Kuwait was exploiting oil that was their rightful property, and whereas Kuwait sold quantities of oil above permitted quantities by the OPEC treaty, it contributed to the decrease of oil prices. Because of this, and other reasons —like seizing those oil wells— Iraq invaded Kuwait in August of 1990. To this, a UN force consisting mostly of Americans replied, which in 1991 expelled the invaders from the rich, small country.
Oil and environmental pollution
At the time of the war, Iraq let oil into the water of the Persian Gulf; gigantic oil slicks were floating on the surface of the sea. They set nearly half of the Kuwaiti oil wells on fire. Through months, until the fires couldn't be extinguished, black clouds shrouded the Sun.
Oil slicks on the sea
Seawater can be also polluted when the oil-tankers are cleaned, or if an accident occurs around the offshore-platforms. The most severe catastrophes were caused by the damage or sinking of oil-tankers. Since oil is lighter than water, it stays on the surface in smaller, but mainly larger slicks. The huge floating oil slicks lead to the destruction of a lot of birds and marine creatures.
The tanker named Exxon Valdez sank in 1989 near Alaska in Prince Williams Bay because it had hit a reef. Almost 240000 barrels of oil flowed into the sea. The firm Exxon started to clean the environment with huge efforts, but most of the damages couldn’t be retrieved. Accidents like this distract attention from the fact that seas are polluted by oil let into rivers or directly to the sea by the coastal industrial firms.
Oil and air pollution:
Many cities air is badly polluted by oil and products of it that are burnt. Cars and other appliances that use internal combustion engines, outlet gases, which contain carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, carbureted hydrogen, and lead. Pollutant gases in sunshine turn into photochemical smog, which shades for example Los Angeles and Mexico City. Water droplets of clouds fuse with nitrogen dioxide and turn into acid rain which pollute lakes, rivers and destroy forests. Sooner or later the leaded petrol will be prohibited in every country, and cars also will be equipped with catalysts in order to neutralize harmful gases.
Last years of oil:
It seems that after two hundred years of splendor people say farewell to oil. The most widely used fossil energy deposits are found in 90 %. From the former seven big oil companies by now only four exists. They are aware that sooner or later oil would run out. There were a lot of debates about running out of fossil fuels. Nowadays the oil is the most widely used from these fossil sources. Its production is going to reach its peak in 2010. According to forecasts after 2010 3% decrease is predicted in its share on the market. Its participation in transportation is 90%, in the worlds power-handling capability input is 40%. According to experts this dependence on oil would lead to crisis even in case of descent decrease in oil production. Developed and developing countries increase their oil consumption for example China has doubled its consumption in the nineties. The importance of oil for developed countries indicates that the crisis in Iraq has broken out because of the eager fight for power on oil fields. Countries like the USA or Great Britain deals with the question of energy supply quite seriously. In this case it means that power over oil fields ensures the economy and energy supply. According to oil engineers as oil decreases it would be used in chemical industry. Later burning oil will be an expensive divertissement; oil would be used for producing plastic.
Forecasts have been getting more and more precise. Prognoses of the seventies were mostly mistaken about the fact of running out of oil in our days. In spite of this the event in near-East proves that there are no signs of it. Calculations are improved by the fact that it is possible to calculate the future consumption of power stations. There were some broadcasts in 1998 in which experts announced that oil resources would be enough for hundreds of years. And by the help of synthetic oils the population could use engines approximately for a thousand year.
The truth is much worse than the above writes. It belongs to the truth that supplies are not increasing in order to the growing requirements. On the top of it oil companies change data in order to ensure their shock market positions and values. Meanwhile it has discovered from many hopeful territories that they doesn’t contain as much oil as the experts thought.
For example it turned out that the Caspian territories doesn’t contain as much oil as the corporations counted. In the long run the oils fate is fixed. It confirms this that from the eight oil corporations by now it remained only four. Numbers say that the succession unions, fusions are not else that an advance particular branches retrogressive procession. It is also said that it is a reaction for the recognition that the 90% of the worlds oil stocks had been discovered.
Wherewith go cars, if oil is depleted?
Although the fuel cells were invented in 1840s they are multitude from the facilities. In turn the engines are not only more silent, but more environmentalists too. –in occasion of hydrogen offset it only “pollutes” the air with water vapor.
In spite of the dollar millions invested in the researches serious difficulties set back its spread. The liquid hydrogen can’t be stored easily. The cells warm up slowly, and the output lags behind the benzene engines.
In the opinion of the people from automotive industry we have to wait still ten years for a remarkable breakthrough. The investigators should reach a cost decrease of 80% thereto this technology to be competitive with benzene engines.