Flooding is simply defined as an inundation of water beyond the natural carrying capacity of the land. In most instances, flooding or threat of flooding is highly discernible- whether or not water is rising above the roadside. A flood that fluctuates rapidly with little warning is known as a flash flood. Flash floods result from significant rainfall over a small area. Coastal areas are sometimes flooded by soaring tides caused by severe winds on ocean surfaces or by tidal waves formed through undersea earthquakes. However, factors causing flooding are numerous and deliberate.
The most frequent cause of flooding is rain. Because of weakened soil with low absorption rates, in some instances, rainwater falls onto the land and is not absorbed into the land as would normally be expected and instead flows off the land onto synthetic developments like roads. Sometimes, even when the soil is very well developed and has high absorption rates, flooding still occurs- in these scenarios, the cause is generally an extensive amount of rainwater deposition, generally caused by a strong storm system, monsoon (especially in South and South East Asia), hurricane or typhoon. In both situations, there is a significant and immediate placement of water, which in most cases the land is not equipped to “carry,” or absorb. Thus, the water flows off the soil and onto the streets and roads. In hurricanes, an additional cause is the storm surge that first reaches the land. In such instances, this storm surge may reach a height of 8 m, which would dramatically cover nearby land and houses.
Additionally, in low level and particularly below sea level, settlements like New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, there is an added susceptibility to sea level rise. In such a situation, sea or ocean water can rise a few inches. Citizens of these towns must keep wary of even minute increases in the river level, for as the river erodes the river banks, the river level relatively increases and can potentially flood adjacent plains full of agricultural crops.
In areas adjacent to mountains such as the Alps in Europe, there is a significant risk regarding glacial melting which would cause flooding on a massive level to flow from the peaks. Such hastily developing floods are often the most deadly.
Floods are ultimately the most frequent of the covered disasters on a global level. Accordingly, it is extremely difficult for individuals to prepare themselves financially through insurance and other compensatory agencies for property destruction from flooding.