- Fractures in the Earth's surface, a process referred to as taphrogeny, result in formation of fault-block mountains.
- If there are two parallel faults, the crustal block between them may either rise to produce a horst-block mountain or fall to produce a rift valley.
- A fallen block is known as a graben. The term block mountain may be applied to tilted fault-block and complex faulted uplands.
- Block mountains exist in countries like Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, where they form basin-and-range landscapes.
- Uplifted blocks may have younger covering formations stripped off them, leaving relict landforms as in the Harz and Black Forest terrains of Germany and in the Massif Central of France.