Space stations and hotels
International Space Station CSS Skywalker
ISS (International Space Station)
In 1984, President Ronald Reagan advertised the Freedom-project. The space station was planned to be international, the USA, Japan, West-Europe and Canada joined the project. The station would build from four modules, and a 66 m long frame, which had 34x12 m sized solar cells at the ends of this. Form the four modules, the Nasa undertook two, the Esa one („Columbus”), and the last were Japan’s (NASDA), the JEM module. Canada would build a manipulator-armed repairer robot, using the experiences acquired in the build of the robot arms of the space ships. The station’s rearing would take twenty flights and first would launch in 1995, but the financial expenditures were underestimated, and the participant countries quit, suggesting the worsening economical status. But, by a presidential deed, the NASA worked on the plans together, the project’s name changed to „Alpha”. The US involved the Russians into the project in 1993. The next year gave the Americans an agreement with the Russians, which made feasible training of the American astronauts on the Mir, and the promise, the Russians going to give structural elements to the ISS (these elements originally would used in the Mir-2)
In 1998.11.20., the Russian Zarya („Dawn”, or the American name: FGB – Functional Cargo Block) launched. Its task was the energy supporting, communication and after all, controlling. Sizes: 12.6 m long, 4.1 m in diameter, the weight is 19.323 t, the life span is nearly 15 years.
The second module was the American Unity (Nod-1). It built from a cylindrical port section and a frustum of a cone formed docking constructions at the ends of the cylinder. Beside of the port section, there are four other dock modules, making contacts with the further joining modules. Sizes: 5.49 m long, 4.57 m in diameter, the weight is 11.612 t.
The next part was the Zvezda („Star”, or Service Module) that linked to the Zarya in 200.07.25., and this module was developed from the base-element of the Mir. It’s a living module, but in the early times of the ISS, it was used to divide the electric energy, subsistence, data process, control of space travel and course corrections. There are a dock port at the back, where Soyuzes and Progresses can dock, and the „Electron” oxygen generator, which make 02 from water with electrolysis. Sizes: 13.1 m long, 4.2 m in diameter, weight is 19.01 t, solar cells’ span is 29.72 m.
Between the 11th and 24th of October, 2000, Z1 „Truss” truss linked to the Unity. This basic truss including four gyroscopes, and stabilize the station. In this time, thePMA-3 docking sluice.
The P6 truss came, and the solar cells of it, on the 30th of November, in the same year, the Endaevour took it up, imparting the station to a new energy stroke.
The next was the Destiny module, launched in 2001.02.07., in the cargo of the Atlantis spaceship. The 14.5 t heavy aluminium module was joined to the ISS by the crew of the STS-98. This is a labour, including three cylindrical and two cone formed parts (giving the chance of connection). The Destiny’s task is the supporting of energy, cooling water and renewing of the air, but it ensuring about the temperature and the humidity too. Sizes: 8.53 m long, 4.25 m in diameter.
On the 19th of April, 2001, launched the Canadarm-2 robot arm aboard the Endeavour. The Canadian tool is 17.6 m long; it can handle the cargos easy and help the dockings.
Next was the „Quest” Joint Airlock, in the 12th of July. The ISS needed it, because before the station’s crew couldn’t pass through the airlocks in spacesuits, so they had to wait until a ship, if they wanted to take a walk in the space. The module has two parts, the Equipment Lock and the Crew Lock, and there are two outer O2 and N2tanks. It was joined the Unity module, and this American machine made easier the repairs. Sizes: 4.1 m long, 2.6 m in diameter, weight is 3.676 t.
The Atlantis took the next part, the S0 truss, and linked it successfully to the Destiny module. This is the backbone of the station, and will be the basic of other frames, which going to hold solar cells.
2002.06.05: The MBS (Mobile Base System) work platform arrived, and this ensuring the Canadarm2’s sideway moving, so the robot arm can reach farther things.
The Atlantis took the next part, the S1 truss, and connected it to the S0. This unit has three cooling radiators and a railway for the MBS. Sizes: 13.7 long, 4.6 m wide, 3 m high, and 12.598 tonnes. It linked to the ISS in the 7th of October, 2002.
The next element was the P1 truss, which looks like the S1, but it linked to the other side of the S0.
There was a long pause in the building, but in 2005.07.26. the Discovery shuttle took up the ESP-2 (External Storage Platform). This is 4.2 m long and 2.2 m wide, and can hold 3 t. It linked to the „Quest” airlock, so the space walkers can reach the tools easy.
Aside from this, lots of modules going to be linked, and the frame isn’t already, so it will hold more solar cells; but the station is successful right away.
The first historical door opening and get aboard was in the 1998.12.10. The Captain of the Endeavour, Cabana, and the Russian Krikaljov moved to the Unity’s dock, and the turned the lights on- The rest of the crew followed them, and started checking out the system. Originally 7-strong crews were in the details, but it reduced to 3-strong. The crew consisted of Russians or Americans before, but in the next, 13th permanent crew, there will be a German man, Mr. Thomas Reitner.
Hungarian tools on the ISS:
The Pille 2003, a Thermoluminescent Detector (TLD) dosimeter, launched in the 31th of August, 2003, aboard a Progress supporter ship. This measuring the cosmic radiation can help in the fixing of the time that allowed to a space walk.
Where is the ISS? - (Opens a new window)
CSS (Commercial Space Station) Skywalker
Mr. Robert Bigelow founded the Bigelow Aerospace to build a hotel, which in space, and orbiting round the Earth, in the altitude of 400 km. The hotel is going to build from Nautilus-modules.
The technology’s idea came fro the NASA, from the Transhab project (finished in 2000). Originally, it was planned as a transporter-module to the Mars-travel. The modules are inflatable, because taking these kind modules to orbit is much cheaper than other kinds. The accomplished module („Nautilus”) in inflated condition look like a 14 m long 6.5 m wide in diameter, armoured sausage, but when it launched, the diameter is only five metres and the outer parts enveloping the inners. In the space, the safe bolts releasing the squashed hull, and the inner tools inflating the module with air. Although, the diameter growing with just 1.5 m, but after the inflating the room is going to increase with seventy percents. The weight of one module is only 23.0 t, which making easier taking it to orbit. The inner room will be 330 cubic meter, the ISS’s is 425 m3. In the details, there planned to link several modules, and the guests can go there in 2010. One night cost one million USD, and this isn’t surprising, if we beholding the expenditures of the rearing.
America's Space Prize:
The win of the prize financed by Robert Bigelow’s firm is 50 million USD, and a 200 million USD agreement is going to be offered for one elected machine (not for the winner, but it can be), which containing six flights, and it can cause a new, 800 million USD contract (for four and a half years, with 24 flight). The Prize could be win with this conditions: building a spacecraft, which circle the Earth twice in the altitude of 400 km, and reply this is 60 days, before the January of 2010. In the first flight, it is enough to demonstrate, the spacecraft can support five people, but in the second, it must fly with a crew. The spacecraft must be linked to the CSS Skywalker, and a six-month long joint orbit with this. Originally, it wasn’t needed, because the Soyuzes, but the ISS need all of them, so a chance busted for the new developments.