Acidity: A basic taste characterised by the solution of an organic acid. A desirable sharp and pleasing taste particularly strong with certain origins as opposed to an over-fermented sour taste.
Acute (disease): Attended with symptoms of some degree of severity, and coming speedily to a crisis; -- opposed to chronic; as, an acute disease
Alzheimer’s disease: A progressive, neurodegenerative disease which causes loss of function or death of brain cells, leading to loss of mental functions such as learning and memory
Anaerobic: Not requiring air or oxygen for life; -- applied especially to those microbes to which free oxygen is unnecessary; anaërobiotic; -- opposed to aerobic.
Aroma: is the odour or fragrance of brewed coffee.Terms used to describe aroma include: caramelly (candy or syrup-like), carbony (for dark roasts), chocolaty, fruity, floral, herbal, malty (cereal-like), rich (over-used), rounded, spicy.
Asthma: A disease, characterized by difficulty of breathing (due to a spasmodic contraction of the bronchi), recurring at intervals, accompanied with a wheezing sound, a sense of constriction in the chest, a cough, and expectoration.
Barista: A person who makes coffee drinks as a profession.
Bitter: A primary taste characterised by the solution of caffeine, quinine and certain alkaloids. roast brewing procedures.
Body: Used to describe the physical properties of the beverage. A strong but pleasant full mouthfeel characteristic as opposed to being thin.
Cappuchino: decadent combination of strong Espresso smoothed out with equal quantities of steamed milk and foamed milk, creating a luxurious cap that can be garnished with either chocolate or cinnamon powder. Usually presented in a large classic cup.
Cardiac arrhythmias: Any variation from the normal rhythm of the Heart beat (also cardiac arrhythmia, ventricular, arrhythmia)
Carcinogen: A substance which produces cancer
Chronic (disease): Chronic disease, one which is inveterate, of long continuance, or progresses slowly, in distinction from an acute disease, which speedly terminates.
Citrus (fruit plant): A genus of trees including the orange, lemon, lime, tangerine, citron, grapefruit, etc., originally natives of southern Asia.
Diabetes (mellitus), type 1: a condition in which the pancreas makes so little insulin that the body cannot use blood glucose as energy, which must be controlled with daily insulin injections
Diabetes (insipidus), type 2: a condition in which the body either makes too little insulin or cannot use the insulin it makes to use blood glucose as energy, which can often be controlled through meal plans and physical activity plans, and diabetes pills or insulin
Earthy: The characteristic odour of fresh earth, wet soil or humus. Sometimes associated with moulds and reminiscent of raw potato flavour, considered as an undesirable flavour when perceived in coffee.
Foetal: of or relating to a fetus.
Gallstone disease: A disease which stones are formed in the gall (bile). Bile is a watery liquid made by the cells of the liver that is important for digesting food in the intestine, particularly fat.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: Reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus causing symptoms that are sufficient to interfere with quality of life.
Grassy: This aroma descriptor includes three terms which are associated with odours reminiscent of a freshly mowed lawn, fresh green grass or herbs, green foliage, green beans or unripe fruit.
Hull: The outer covering of anything, particularly of a nut or of grain; the outer skin of a kernel; the husk.
Imunotoxic: This adjective is applied to any substance harmful to the immune system
Latte: Prepared by pouring milk into the espresso.
Liver cirrhosis: A disease of the liver in which it usually becomes smaller in size and more dense and fibrous in consistence; hence sometimes applied to similar changes in other organs, caused by increase in the fibrous framework and decrease in the proper substance of the organ.
Macchiato: A shot or two of espresso that has been poured into a cup filled with steamed milk and topped off with foamed milk (about a 1/4").
Mocha: delicious medley of pure Espresso and real chocolate filled with steamed milk and crowned with a swirl of whipped cream. Completed with a garnish of sweet chocolate powder or real chocolate shavings. A rich and indulgent chocolate experience, served in a tall straight glass.
Molasses: The thick, brown or dark colored, viscid, uncrystallizable sirup which drains from sugar, in the process of manufacture; any thick, viscid, sweet sirup made from vegetable juice or sap, as of the sorghum or maple
Mycotoxin: Substance produced by mould growing in food or animal feed and causing illness or death when ingested by humans or animals.
Nephrotoxin: Toxic or destructive to kidney cells
Osteoporosis: A bone disease, primarily due to calcium depletion, which can lead to an increased likelihood of bone fracture
Parkinson disease: Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the brain characterized by shaking (tremor) and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination. The disease is associated with damage to a part of the brain that is involved with movement.
Pasteurised: successive inoculations with an attenuated virus of gradually increasing strength.
Pulp: The exterior part of a coffee berry
Strong: technically refers to the degree of presence of various taste defects and virtues, or to the relative proportion of coffee solubles to water in a given brew. In popular use, it's often the assertive flavour of dark-roasted beans. It is also incorrectly associated with high caffeine content
Tannin: (a) An acid obtained from nutgalls as a yellow amorphous substance, C14H10O9, having an astringent taste, and forming with ferric salts a bluish-black compound, which is the basis of common ink. Called also tannin, and gallotannic acid. (b) By extension, any one of a series of astringent substances resembling tannin proper, widely diffused through the vegetable kingdom, as in oak bark, willow, catechu, tea, coffee, etc.
Teratogenic: Teratogenic substances cause developmental malformations during gestation
Xylem: That portion of a fibrovascular bundle which has developed, or will develop, into wood cells; -- distinguished from phloëm.