1.Minoan Crete - Aegean Islands (about 2000-1000 bC)
of the most important prehistoric settlements of the Aegean, was extended
and developed into one of the main urban centers and ports of the Aegean.
The first habitation at the site dates from the Late Neolithic times (at
least the 4th millennium B.C.) came to an abrupt end in the last
quarter of the 17th century B.C. when the inhabitants were obliged to
abandon it as a result of severe earthquakes.
Excavations began in 1967 by Professor Spyridon Marinatos and after his death have been continued under the direction of Professor Christos Doumas.
The most important buildings and frescoes are
West House (first floor's rooms)
The Flotilla miniature frieze
Ran around all the four walls of the room and depicted a major overseas
voyage, in the course of which, the fleet visited several harbors and towns.
Both frescoes were made about 16th century, now are exposed at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens.
Xeste 3-That building had at least
two-storeys high, with fourteen rooms on each floor. Judging from the
architectural peculiarities of the building and the themes of the frescoes, Xeste 3 was used for the performance of some kind of ritual.
Saffron Gatherers The former depicts three women in a field with bloomed crocuses collecting
crocuses which they offer to a seated goodness, flanked by a blue monkey.
Saffron Gathers and Seated goodness from the National
Archaeological Museum's collection,
and Bleu Monkey from The Prehistoric Thera Museum's collection.
The famous wall paintings of the Antelopes
and the Boxing Children are from
possibly two separate buildings the one attached to the other. Frescoes inside this building, were
made also about 16th century and are now exposed at the National Archaeological Museum,
Athens, with the Spring fresco from Complex Delta, where the artist represented with
special sensitivity a rocky landscape, planted with blossoming lilies, between which swallows fly
in a variety of positions.
House of the Ladies. The large building was named so because of
the fresco with the Ladies and the Papyruses, which decorated the interior.
From the Prehistoric Thera Museum's collection.
Resources: ODYSSEUS, the WWW server of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture http://www.culture.gr/2/21/211/21121a/e211ua08.html
Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/siteindex?entry=Akrotiri,+Thera
Museum of Prehistoric Thera http://www.culture.gr/2/21/211/21121m/e211um18.html
National Archaeological Museum of Athens http://www.culture.gr/2/21/214/21405m/e21405m1.html
Crete - Knossos,
is the site of the most important and better known palace of Minoan
civilization. According to tradition, it was the seat of the legendary king
Minos. The site was continuously inhabited from the Neolithic period
(7000-3000 B.C.) until Roman times (about 67 B.C. Knossos was captured by
the Roman Quintus Caecilius Metelus Creticus).
Place was discovered in 1878 by Minos Kalokairinos. Arthur Evans conducted systematic excavations at the site between 1900 and 1931, bringing to light the palace, a large section of the Minoan city, and the cemeteries. Since then, the site and the surrounding area have been excavated by the British School of Archaeology at Athens and the 23rd E.P.C.A.
Knossos Palace were built along with luxurious houses, about 16th-14th centuries bC. It had many storeys, was built of ashlars blocks and its walls were decorated with splendid frescoes, mostly representing religious ceremonies.
Boys carrying jars and pitchers. A copy of the fresco from the South Propylaea. The male figures wear brightly embroidered loin-cloths with gold and silver belts, silver anklets and bracelets and carry precious vessels.
The Prince of the Lilies depicts a regal figure, probably the Priest-King, wearing a crown of lilies and peacock plumes and with his outstretched left hand apparently leading something or someone towards the Central Court.
The Parisien: Famous fresco probably a priestess of the
deity. From the Palace of Knossos, dated 15th century B.C.
The copy of the Bull-Leaping Fresco, a contest, probably religious in character.The original was
found in the East Wing of the palace. It depicts the three successive stages of the sport and thus
gives us a clear picture of how it was performed. Both men and women took part in this
Ladies in Blue Fresco. The original adorned the large
ante-chamber of the Throne Room in the
East Wing of the palace. The ladies of the court, dressed with great elegance according to the
fashion of the day, engage in conversation.
House of the Frescoes and Caravanserai buildings were located near to the palace and was were decorated with frescoes.
Most of the
frescoes mentioned above are now at the
Archaeological museum of
Museum has the biggest collection of Minoan art in the world. Twenty galleries (rooms) show the exhibits in chronological order from the Neolithic Period to the Greco-Roman period. The magnificent Minoan frescoes are displayed in the upstairs rooms.
Byzantium, after the break with Rome at the end of the 4th century begins to develop its own distinctive art styles and forms.
As Christianity was the state religion, the Church closely regulated art and much of the art focused on efforts to venerate Christ and the saints. There is much less of the personal art that was common in the Western Empire.
Byzantine art produced beautiful religious icons and mosaics strongly influenced the Orthodox Churches of Greece, Russia, and elsewhere. The formal break with the Roman Catholic Church in the 11th century also affected Byzantine art. Some of the major types of Byzantine art are monumental architecture, icons, mosaics, and sculptures. The fact that Byzantine art was so focused on the emperor and religious veneration means that the kind of personal art depicting how people dressed and lived their lives is very limited.
The monastic and secular clergy formed
an important part of the Byzantine society.
Monks were a prominent social group in the Byzantine Empire. Many of them visited Constantinople in the protection of Theodora.
Bishops played an important and diverse role in Byzantine society.
In this picture: Maximian, archbishop of Ravenna. Detail of mosaic from the northern wall of the sanctuary of San Vitale at Ravenna. 547. Picture of the monk is from Osios Lukas Monastery, in Biotia Greece.
During the 11th and 12th centuries the mosaic system was carried by
Byzantine mosaicists to Russia (Hagia Sophia at Kiev, 1043-46) and in Italy
to Venice (Saint Mark's, after 1063) and to Norman Sicily. (Palatine Chapel,
Palermo, 1140s; Monreale Cathedral, 1180s).
The magnificent mosaics of San Vitale in Ravenna focuses on the emperor Justinian and his empress Theodora making offerings to Christ. (pictures above)
The agricultural population was a great part of the Byzantine society, divided in sub-classes according to income. Free farmers formed two categories - small landowners and those who worked in the fields for wages. Slaves were the lowest Byzantine social class.
Two pictures above: details of mosaic from the Santa Constanza church at Rome. Early 4th century.
Soprintenza Archeologica di Roma.
Picture left, Mosaic from the Great Palace of Constantinople. 4th-7th century.
Ankara, Ministry of Culture General Directorate of Monuments and Museums.
Greek National Costumes and
Lyceum Club of Greek Women.
Lyceum Club of Greek Women is a non-profit organization, founded in 1910. with main purposes a) to gather information regarding the Greek regional costumes b) to collect original research material, and c) to organize seminars and exhibitions on the subject of the Greek traditional costume. The founder was Callirrhoe Parren.
At the beginning of 1994 -following a request by the president of the Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation, Ioanna Papantoniou- the Lyceum Club of Greek Women became a permanent collaborator of the National Archive of the Greek Traditional Costume and offered to provide a permanent home for the Archive on the premises of its Museum of the History of the Greek Costume.
starting in 1990, the Lyceum Club of Greek Women has been publishing desktop Calendars, illustrated with colour photographs and containing relevant introductory notes.
Last year's calendar presents the photographic archive of Emile Lester with society ladies of Athens in the period between the two World Wars, dressed in regional costumes from various parts of Greece.
Emile Lester is a photographer of unknown national origin. There is no written record of his activity. According to the historian Alkis Xanthakis Lester made his appearance in Athens around 1904 and was occupied in photographic studios.
Lyceum Club possesses the above mentioned 30 photos, unsigned and without negatives. All photos are made with the technique of tinting, popular in those days. Listed below find some of the photographs with a small description of the costume presented.
Costume from Gida, is one of the most striking Greek costumes. It is worn in the fifty or so villages of the Roumlouki district in the plain of Yannitsa. The most striking feature of this costume is the unusual headdress (katsouli). It is generally regarded as a sign of pure Hellenic descent and bears a resemblance of an ancient helmet and according to local tradition has been worn since the days of Alexander The Great. The latter in order to reward the women of this district for their gallant conduct during a battle, is said to have bestowed the helmets his men used to wear on them.
The female costume of Siphnos can be dated to approximately the late 18th and early 19th century The costume consisted on a vraka (pantaloons), a petticoat, a fine white chemise, a sleeveless waistcoat, and a long overcoat made of imported European brocade. The headdress was made out of a small cap that was covered by a silk scarf and was secured by a silk ribbon. The gold and semi-precious jewelry was Western in style and depicted butterflies, flowers, eagles and sailboats.
In our days the national costume of Greece, the one designated by Queen Amalia. She was the first queen of Greece, and was of Bavarian descent.
The true Amalia skirt was originally green, but was later changed to blue. A long sleeved jacket is worn with the skirt. The hat has a long cord, (traditionally made of the woman’s own braided hair), with a tassel. It was said that the longer the cord, the more favor that particular girl had in the court of Amalia.
Tsolias - Fustanella
In the Peloponnesus, Attica and generally Main Greece men wore the fustanella, a pleated white skirt that has prevailed as the official Greek man's costume. The Greek warrior of the revolution against the Ottoman rule/ occupation (1821) adopted the fustanella and later on it became the official dress of King Otto's court.
Worn by diplomats and warriors, this costume was declared the national costume for men. Today we see men wearing this costume on certain celebrations, national holidays and by the soldiers/members of the special regiment (euzonoi).
Lord Byron, King Otto and Spyros Louis wearing fustanella. On the left the
costume of I.Kapodistrias
(first governor of the new Hellenic State).
Kallitheas, On Track Team's case study. Team's coach
Mrs. Mary Kasapidi
Recommended Resolution 1024 x 728 - Last update 15/04/2005