(most info here is from http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Mathematical_games.html )
Many Logic problems are mathematical, and range from amazingly easy problems like "If a farmer has 3 sheep, and gets 2 more, how many does he have?" to startlingly difficult problems that haven't yet been solved. One very early logic puzzle is this one written in Egypt:
Seven houses contain seven cats, and each cat kills seven mice. Every mouse had eaten seven ears of grain, which each would have created seven hekats of wheat. What's the total of all these?
To find the answer, of course, a person would take 7 to the 5th power. Similar problems came up in 1202, written by Leonardo Fibonacci. Fibonacci also created the famous Fibonacci Sequence: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34...etc. Finding new Fibonacci numbers is done by adding the first two numbers together to get the third.0+1=1; 1+1=2; 2+1=3, and so on. A logic problem called the Rabbit Problem was made, which actually used Fibonacci's sequence to create a very difficult question. A software company made a PC game dedicated to certain versions of logic quoted as "math without numbers" in which consumers learned deduction, sorting, graph use, and patterns. Modern Logic Puzzles include the Rubik's cube, puzzles like ours, and "table puzzles" which require a certain type of graph to complete them.
The Rubik's Cube is one of the most famous logic puzzle
devices on earth. To solve the Rubik's Cube, one must rearrange the
scrambled colors on a cube so that there is one unified color on each
side. The Rubik's Cube has Forty three quintillion two hundred fifty two
quadrillion three trillion two hundred seventy four billion four hundred
eighty nine million eight hundred fifty six thousand different possible
combinations, and so it can get pretty frustrating!
The fastest official time for solving a Rubik's Cube is 12.11 seconds! (And all I've managed to do is complete one side in 10 minutes...) There are also assorted variations of the "basic" competition, in which you must just solve the cube. To see them, click here.
and so on.
Important people in logic puzzles: