|Structure of State|
|Kings of Mongolian Empire|
Begining of the Great Mongolia
|Became the Chinggis Khaan|
Hostile Temujin and Jamuha:
Temujin had collected military for the struggle against the Merged. At that
time the military of Udaid Merged’s Togtoa was in Buur Khee, Uvaas Merged’s
Dair Usun’s Military was on the bank Talkhun of Selenge River, Khaad Merged’s
Khaatai darmala’s military was in Kharj steppe. The distance between the militaries
was great and they didn’t know that Temujin was going to attack them and weren’t
ready for the struggle.
Temujin, Tooril Khan and Jamukha using the far distance between the Merged’s militaries decided to attack them directly in the midnight. The military of Temujin attacked the Khaad Merged and captured the chieftain Khaatai Darmala. Khaatai Darmala was exiled to BurKhan Khalduun Mountain. After that Temujin destroyed all three hundred Merged who took part in the captivity of Burte Ujin and all Merged women and children became servants.
There was a five year old child crying in the territory of Udaid Merged. His name’s Khuchu. Temujin took him on the horse and gave him to his mother, Uelun, as a present. Mother Uelun said: “I will feed and bring him up like my real son. He will be your ear in the night and an eye in the day.”
This battle, in which Temujin won over the Merged, was named in history “The Battle of Buur Kheer”. Temujin and Jamukha had lived in Khorkhonog Jibur for one and half year. During that year the honor of Temujin had been raised. Some people who submitted to Jamukha came to Temujin. Jamukha thought that “The Battle of Buur Kheer” was only for the return of Burte to Temujin, and to get his revenge from Merged. But this battle had shown that Temujin was honest to his friends and talented in managing battles. Also Jamukha thought that after this battle Temujin should remain as a friend and support for Jamukha. But, Temujin wanted to expand his effect. Many people had Temujin for one and half year. But, Jamukha began to hate his friend Temujin. In 1181 in the beginning of the summer; the sixteenth of the first month Temujin and Jamukha decided to roam from that place to a place where there is a good pasture. The two tribes, with many people, were going together. Then the chieftain of the Jadran tribe, Jamukha said: “Temujin, my friend,
Let’s stay at the mountain,
It’s good to a groom.
Let’s stay near the River,
It’s good to a herdsman.”
But Temujin didn’t understand Jamukha’s words. Then Temujin approached to his mother’s cart and said:
“Jamukha’s just said ‘Temujin, my friend,
Let’s stay at the mountain,
It’s good to a groom.
Let’s stay near the River,
It’s good to a herdsman.’
I can’t understand these words. I want to know the meaning of these words. Please, tell me!” said Temujin. At that moment Burte Ujin who was sitting near Uelun answered: “Jamukha’s bored with us. He means he’s looKing for another rich friend who will always help and treat him well and also be popular among people.” Then mother Uelun said: “My son, Jamukha and you have been friends since childhood. But now he doesn’t trust you. Let him stay where he wants. We won’t stay there, we’ll go farther.”
Temujin’s horse caravan approached to the territory of Taichuud. Khasar offered revenge against them first. Then Belgutei said: “Let’s attack them.” At that time Temujin was already nineteen and he thought about everything first then he could decide what to do. He thought fight or not. He wanted to destroy them. But, first, they are roaming from place to place. There are old people, wives and children with them. That’s why Taichuud can hurt them. On the other hand, Temujin and his troop aren’t ready for the fight. If Taichuud know about that they will attack Temujin with huge military and then Temujin would lose. Temujin thought about that and decided to attack Targutai Khiriltug with a concentration of all warriors, then capture him alive. In the midnight.
Back to TOP
Fight against Taichuuds
Belgutei and Zelme with twenty warriors from the left hand, Khasar and Boorchi
– with the same number of warriors from the right hand and Temujin with thirty
warriors were the main strength of the army, attacked in front of the Taichuud.
Another fifty warriors stayed with Uelun and Burte Ujin to protect them.
At that time the Taichuud weren’t asleep. They were celebrating the anniversaries of Orbai and Sokhatai queens. Suddenly horse hoof were heard and Targutai suspected that Temujin was coming for revenge against him. Then Targutai decided to escape from this place with his wife and children and to join Jamukha. Other people who remained escaped to the forest.
When Temujin’s people attacked them, there was nothing except livestock and things which belonged to Taichuud. However there was a child of about ten years old. Temujin approached him and asked: “Who are you?” Then the boy replied: "My name’s Khuhuchu. I’m one of the Taichuud’s sons. My parents escaped from this place when I was sleeping.” Then Temujin brought him to his mother Uelun. Uelun looked at him very intently and decided that he seemed a kind-hearted child. Uelun said: “It’s not his fault that he is one of the Taichuud. I want him to be my son. I’ll bring him up and treat as my real son. Later on he will help you, Temujin.”
Temujin and others of his people went farther. Early in the morning there were many people around Temujin’s camp. There were Jalair tribe’s Khachiun-Tanuraun, Kharkhai-Takhuraun and Kharandai-Takhuraun; also Darkhad tribe’s Khadaan, DaldurKhan and five other brothers; Baarin tribe’s Khorchi, Usun, Khukhuchus; also Boorchi’s brother Ugelen Cherbi, Zelme’s brother ChaurKhan and Subedei came to Temujin. The sum total was twenty-one tribes of over the hundred people.
In Mongolian history there were four Khans: Bodonchar Khan, Khabul Khan, Khotul Khan and Ambagai Khan. Temujin became the next and fifth Khan of Mongolia. Temujin was lauded as Chinggis Khan the “oceanic ruler”. In 1189 at the age of twenty-eight he was enthroned on the throne at the place called Khukh Nuur (“Blue Lake”).
The four Khans before Chinggis Khan couldn’t establish organizations that executed the orders of Khan. And for the first time Temujin established executive organizations. Khasar, KKhubilai, Chilgudei and Kharhai-Tokhuraun had responsibility for military operations. Then Temujin appointed Arkhai Khasar, Takhai, Sukherkhei and ChaurKhan as the lords of signalers, intelligence officers and guides. After that Subedei became a lord defender of families, homes and wealth. Belgutei, Kharaldai-Tokhuraun became the lords that organized people’s employments. Taichuud’s Hutu, Morichi, Mulkhalkhu became herdsmen that took care of livestock. Khuchugur was appointed as a lord that governed the preparing and protecting carts. Sukherkhei Cherbi, Khadaan-Daldurkhaan and Ungur had responsibilities for preparing food and meals at the inn. Dodai Cherbi was appointed as a lord that governed women, children and servants. Especially Boorchi and Zelme became the governors of all. That was Chinggis Khan’s executive organization.
Afterwards Temujin was given the title Chinggis Khan in Mongolian territory there were three powerful Khans: Tooril Khan, Chinggis Khan and Jamukha. Chinggis Khan lived on the banks of Onon and Kherlen Rivers. Tooril Khan lived near the Tuul River. Jamukha and his tribe lived near the Khulun Lake. Tooril Khan was the most powerful, and then follows Jamukha’s tribe. Temujin was a new power. But the population and wealth of the tribe was too small.
Chinggis Khaan sent Arkhai Khasar and ChaurKhan as messengers to Jamukha. Jamukha gave tea to messengers and swept them away without any hospitality. He thought: “I’ve more people, I’m more powerful, and I’ll be the King of everything.” He was so angry because everything he had in his mind went wrong. Not long passed from this occasion before the Taichar case happened, when the war between Jamukha and Chinggis Khan began.
In nomadic Mongolian society to steal someone’s animal was very loathsome. If the owner of stolen animals kills the thief no one will judge that person. When Jamukha heard about the death of his brother he was so angry that he decided to fight against Temujin. “Temujin doesn’t respect me and my family, not even his servants. How could his servant kill my brother?! I must win this war. I must destroy Temujin’s pride and prove my power.” – Jamukha said to the 13 tribes, who were following him: Taichuud, Ikhires, Urud, Noyokhin, Barulas, Gorlos, Baarin, Khongirad, Khatgin, Saljiud, and Tatar. He collected soldiers from those tribes and went to fight Temujin. This army was named “The Range of 13 Soldiers”, because there were 13 tribes. But to take revenge on Temujin for Taichar was only a cover. Jamukha wanted only to destroy Temujin before he would become more and more powerful.
One day Taichar, who lived in Undur Bulag a place near Jalma Mountain, stole fast and good horses from Chinggis Khan’s servant Zochi-Darmala, who lived in a place Saari-Kheer. When Zochi-Darmala saw that stranger was stealing his horses he quickly returned to his ger and took his bow and arrow. He chased Taichar until night and killed him. He took his beautiful horses back.
Temujin heard about Jamukha’s army coming from his sister, Temulen’s father-in-law who was from Ikhires tribe. Chinggis Khan was very surprised how quickly Jamukha was in collecting soldiers when even he didn’t know about Taichar’s case. After he heard this news he quickly made contact with his people, collected thirty thousand soldiers and went to meet Jamukha with his army. Two armies fought in the mountain Jalama. Jalama was short and Non-grass Mountain. Because Temujin collected his armies without any preparation his horses were tired. But Jamukha’s soldiers were well prepared and had the best horses. Jamukha used a blockade. Taichuud tribe’s people said: “We must gain revenge from Temujin” and so they followed Jamukha. So blocked from every side Temujin’s soldiers begun to fight a bad position. Jamukha’s soldiers shot arrows so that Temujin’s soldiers had to go back to a cave in the mountain that was on the Bank of Onon River. They hid there. This place’s name was Zeeren. The road to the cave was very hard with lots of stones and trees so Jamukha had to get back. That evening to prove his power Jamukha killed several soldiers very cruel who were taken from the fight from Chinos tribe. Everyone, who saw this action of him prayed to the sky and grieved. One prisoner from Neudai tribe said him “You can’t be not hated.” After those words Jamukha got angry and killed all the prisoners, then cut off their heads and tied them to horses’ tails. This battle held in 1190 and was named as “The 13 Range’s Battle” in history. In summary sixty soldiers took part in this battle from both sides. However Chinggis Khan lost this battle and Jamukha won. Because of his cruelty, many tribes went away from Jamukha. Even Khonkhotan’s Menlig left Jamukha and returned to Chinggis Khan with his seven sons.
In this battle Khan lost but he didn’t lose his spiritual strength and power. He understood the meaning of preparing for battle.
Back to TOP
Fight against other tribes
In five years time after that battle Chinggis Khan increased his herds and
flocks; also he increased the abilities of his army and improved his power.
At this time he taught his soldiers knowledge about the art of war. Even when
they were hunting they practiced. After this preparation he fought against Tatar
tribe in 1196.
Tribe Tatar lived near Buir Lake and was the most powerful tribe in the second half of twelfth century. In 840 Tatar tribe became powerful and destroyed the Uigur dynasty. After that Tatar moved into their place and made a “Great Tatar’s Society” with Khereid, Jalair, Onguud, Merged, Khongiraad tribes. Also they owned lots of mountainous parts of Mongolia. But Khidan fought them. Although the tribe’s society was destroyed, Tatar remained as the most powerful tribe. Very soon the Zurchid tribe destroyed Khidan and became Altan state. Tatar partnered with them and forgot all the help of other Mongolian tribes. They gave to Altan Empire the ancestor of Tooril Khan Khereid’s Buirag Khan and Mongolian Ambagai Khan and they killed Khans. Also Tatar killed Chinggis Khan’s father, Yesukhei, the hero. So hostility between them and Mongolian tribes grew. But because they lived near Altan Empire they were richer with flour, rice, and cotton, silk, also they had bigger markets than other Mongolian tribes. On the other hand Altan Empire used Tatar to destroy other Mongolian tribes. In 1194 Altan Empire argued with Mongolian Khatagin and Saljiud tribes. In 1195 Altan Empire’s soldiers came on Mongolian land and captured 14 Saljiud’s and Khatagin’s villages. But Tatar took almost all things that were stolen from Mongolians. Because of it Altan Empire considers them to be enemies so King Janzun sent Vangin Chinsan to fight Tatars. When they finally won, Tatar’s leader Megujin-Suult decided to hide near Lake Ulz. When Temujin heard about this case he thought that he had a very good opportunity for revenge from Tatars by using Altan’s soldiers’ power. And he sent Belgutei and Boorchi to Tooril Khan with words “Tatar’s leader Megujin-Suult is running away by the River Ulz. It is time for revenge. Please, come with me with your soldiers to destroy Tatars.” He also sent Khasar and Khuildar to his relatives Sackha-Bekhi and Taichu in order to collect more soldiers. But they didn’t come. Tooril Khan came immediately to Temujin and they, together, waited for Sacha-Bekhi and Taichu. They waited six days and then went to fight Tatars. When Altan’s Vangin Chinsan heard about it he was very happy.
After he destroyed the main powers of Tatars, Temujin found, on their land, a four-year-old Tatarian boy with golden earrings and silk del. Khaan gave him to Queen Uelun. Queen was very happy and said “I will grove him as my own child. I will name him Shikhikhutag. He will be a faithful and helpful person for my son.” The Altan Empire was so glad that Tatars were destroyed that they gave to Temujin “Chauthuri” the title, to Tooril Khan “Van Khan.” Since that time Tooril became Van Han.
In 1198 while Chinggis Khan was spending autumn near the Lake Khusekhui Tooril Khan’s messenger arrived. Before telling the words of the messenger author must remember one case that happened two years ago.
In 1196 when Tooril Khan was fighting against Tatars with Temujin, Naiman’s Khan Inancha Bilgee and Tooril Khan’s brother Erkhe Khar using the emptiness of Khereid tribe, attacked and captured it. Tooril Khan was given a title “Van Khan” in Altan Empire, and while he was going back to his tribe, he met the soldiers of Naiman’s Inancha Bilgee Khan and Erkhe Khar and struggled. Tooril Khan lost that battle and had to escape to Khar Khidan. But very soon he argued with his uncle Gal Khul and had to leave that place. He had no food, no water, ate only plants’ roofs and came to Chinggis Khan, with only one horse, asKing for help.
Seeing that Tooril Khan was suffering Temujin gave him livestock and possessions, also the Khereid tribe’s people, who left Tooril, came back to him. Then on the bank of Tuul River Khuba there was a feast for Van Khan, a sign of honor.
At that time Udaid Merged tribes’, Togto-Bekhi came with his warriors to Temujin to get his revenge at the place called Har valley. But he was defeated and all his possessions, wives and children became Van Khan’s. After Chinggis Khan returned back home, Van Khan collected all his soldiers without telling him and chased Togto-Bekhi. They fought in Bargujin Tukhum and Van Han killed Togto-Bekhi’s brother Tugsu-Bekhi, captured his two daughters Khutugtai and Chagarun. Chinggis didn’t know about all these events.
In 1199, when Chinggis Khan was 38, he supported Van Khan and to get revenge he struggled with the Naiman tribe. The Naiman tribe was the most populated tribe in Mongolia and it also had lots of livestock. It was located between Khangai and Altai mountains and the religion was Christian.
When Chinggis Khan went with Van Khan to fight against the Naiman tribe, Tayan became the Naiman tribe’s Khan. He named his tribe South Naiman. The northern Naiman’s Khan became Tayan Khan’s brother Buirag. And Northern Naiman bordered with Khereid tribe. So Chinggis Khan destroyed Northern Naiman. At that time Buirag Khan’s soldiers weren’t ready for a struggle so escaped to Altai Mountains. Then Chinggis Khan with Van Khan returned. On their way Naiman’s soldiers attacked them at the place called Baidragyn Belcher. In that battle Van Khan escaped with his soldiers leaving Temujin.
. Buirag Khan’s warriors attacked Van Khan. They captured Van Khan’s livestock and carts. Van Khan had no other way out to send a messenger asKing for help to get back his things. Chinggis Khan heard that he sent Boorchi and Mukhulai to fight against Buirag again. At that battle Boorchi and Mukhulai won and brought Van Khan’s things back. This battle was named in history as “Khuitny Baildaan” (Cold Battle).
. After that battle many tribes came to Chinggis, so in 1202 Chinggis Khan went for revenge against The Tatars. At that time Tatar tribe was divided into four small tribes with seventy thousand people. In the middle of autumn Temujin with twenty thousand soldiers went against the Tatars and made two types of rules for his soldiers:
1. No greed during attack and losing time.
2. If we get back we must gather at the place when we started.
That battle lasted until midday. The Tatars escaped to Jamukha.
Back to TOP
Became the Chinggis Khaan
In 1204 Chinggis Khan prepared his soldiers to attack Southern Naiman. For
that battle he classified his soldiers by hundred thousand. Every classified
soldier had one chieftain. Also there were night and day defenders and bodyguards.
Chinggis Khan chose the best thousand knights and appointed them as “Khoshuuch”.
He appointed Zev and Khubilai as spies. Soldiers that submitted to Zev and KKhubilai fought against Naiman’s a half day in Saari-Heeri. When Naiman’s lords saw that they thought, “The Mongolian horses are weak; it’s easy to conquer them.” But Chinggis Khan collected eighty thousand soldiers from Tayan Khan, Togto-Bekhi and Tugsu-Bekhi. The Chinggis Khan’s strategy for the battle was: “Using the darkness of the night they tried to seem like many.” Tayan Khan saw that and decided to go to Nakhu Gun. Chinggis Khan heard about that. So, he divided his soldiers into three groups. Zev, Subedei, Zelme and Khubilai governed the soldiers that were going first. Khasar governed the main soldiers. And Otchigin leaded the last group.
The battle of Nakhu Gun lasted for a whole day, so Naiman’s soldiers became tired. The tribes of Jamukha overturned from Naiman and Khuchulug escaped. In the morning the Naiman’s soldiers gave up and Tayan Khan was dead.
In 1205 Chinggis Khan and his soldiers approached the bank of Erhes Lake and attacked Khuchulug. After that battle Khuchulug escaped to Khar Khidan and Hutu and Chuluu generals escaped to Khivchak.
Jamukha’s friends betrayed him and took him to Chinggis Khan. Chinggis Khan killed those people because they betrayed their chieftain. When Chinggis Khan asked him to be friends again Jamukha asked him to kill him without blood because he lost this war.
In 1206 Chinggis Khan was given a title Khaan of All Mongolian Empire.
Back to TOP
© All rights reserved.