Mars is often known as the red planet or the god of war. It is popular as it is a favourite target for science-fiction tales. Mars did have liquid water in the past. The proof lies in the eroded rocks found on Mars. However, the water probably froze and Mars, at present, possesses frozen water at its poles, the amount of which is enough to flood the whole planet if melted. Its atmosphere consists mostly of carbon dioxide.
Besides water, Mars also had a magnetic field in the past. The evidence is the frozen lines of magnetic fields found in Mars crust. The reason for its disappearance is that the molten iron core of Mars had frozen solid long ago, leaving new generations of magnetic field not generated. Mars also had plate tectonics. It produced great geological features such as Olympus Mons. However, it stopped because the temperature of the mantle was also too cold for volcanism to take place. As far as we know, Mars does not support life.
- The red planet. It is red due to oxidized (rusting) iron oxide on its surface. The dust on it also fragments the light to let the surface look red.
- Eroded rocks show Mars had liquid water in the past. However, it froze. Only possess frozen water at its poles.
- Plate techtonics in the past. Created mountains like the Olympus Mons. Now there is no more plate techtonics as the mantle could have froze too.
- Has craters, canyons, mountains, rift valleys, ridges, hills and plains.
- Younger geographical features on the northern hemisphere. Older geographical features on the southern hemisphere.
- A frozen core of 1700km.
- A vividly molten mantle
- A rocky crust. 80km thick in Southern hemisphere and 30km thick in Northern hemisphere
- A thin atmosphere
- Magnetic field in the past. It has frozen lines of magnetic fields in its crust. Now, there is only a weak magnetic field, remains of the past, as the semi molten core could have froze some time ago.
- Core has iron and iron sulfide. It has a low density.
- The crust is primarily comprised of oxidized Iron oxide.
- The a verage temperature is about -67 F. Mar’s Orbit significantly elliptical. As a result, the temperature can vary from -207 F to 80 F at different areas of Mars and at different times of its orbit due to its aphelion and perihelion being largely different.
- Cool with low humidity. The water is frozen.
Phobos and Deimos are made up of carbon rocks, very similar to most asteroids. They have very low densities as they are made of water and rocks. Craters and dust layers can be found on both planets. Phobos and Deimos are believed to be asteroids captured by Mars' gravity. Phobos is the closest moon to its planet as we know so far, not more than 6000km above Mars. Scientists predict that around half a billion years later, Phobos will crash into Mars. This is largely due to Phobos’ orbiting rate which is slowing down. This will cause the gravitational pull of Mars to grow stronger on Phobes which will eventually pull it to Mars.