Venera 11, 12, 13
Venera 11 Descent Craft
It was designed to study the detailed chemical composition of the vennsian atmosphere, the nature of the clouds, and the thermal balance of the atmosphere. It was launched on 9th Sept. 1978 . Separating from its flight platform on Dec 25, 1978 , it made a soft landing on the surface after a descent time of approximately 1 hour. During this time, it employed aerodynamic breaking followed by parachute braking and ending with atmospheric braking. The touch down speed was 7-8 M/S. Information was transmitted to the flight platform for retransmittion to earth.
Launched on 14th Sept 1978 by USSR . Venera 12 launched on Dec 21, 1978 and returned data for 110 minutes. It was designed to study the detailed chemical composition of the atmosphere, the nature of the clouds and the thermal balance of the atmosphere.
It was launched on Oct 30, 1981 and landed on Venus on 1st March 1982 . It returned black and white, and the first color panoramic views of the Venus surface. It also conduced soil analysis using an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The sample was determined to be Lucite basalt, a rare rock type on the earth.
Let us see the parts of Venera spacecraft in detail