Basic requirements of space station are:
The solar power plant
It is one of the most important systems of a space station. It is equipped with a storage battery, which delivers direct current. The steam generator in solar power plant is heated by solar radiations concentrated on a concave mirror. Radiating heat into empty space cools the condenser (part of the steam generator). Thus the condenser must be shielded away from the sun and opened into empty space.
The size of the concave mirror must be appropriately designed to ensure sufficient energy for the proper operations of the space station. Both the condenser and steam generator must be painted dull black on the outside.
Nitrogen can be used as a condensing fluid since it allows temperature of the condensation to be maintained exceptionally low. Additionally, escape of nitrogen would not pollute the valuable air of the space station.
This is a very simple task and can be easily accomplished directly with the help of sun. It requires no mechanical equipments.
The walls of the space station have round openings with the lens type glass window. A milk white coloring or frosting of the window ensures that all the harmful radiations are filtered. Additionally, extracting current from the solar power plant could provide artificial electrical lightning.
Supplying air and heat
Heating of the space stations takes place directly by heating air simultaneously with ventilation. For this purpose, the entire air of the space station is sent to the ventilation system where it is heated, cleaned and regenerated. The ventilators discharge air through small screen openings into the rooms.
The air in the ventilator flows through the dust filters. It then arrives in a pipe where the temperature is brought below 78 0 C thus precipitating water vapor and carbon dioxide. The air is then maintained at a temperature needed to keep the room warm. Oxygen and moisture contents are brought to proper levels. The air is then circulated into the room. Thus only the oxygen consumed is replaced and the non-consumed components remain continually in space. Oxygen must be continuously supplied from the earth.
Communication takes place with the help of heliograph using mirrors, electrical lamps etc., by radio or by wires confined within the space station.
Heliograph is an unreliable method as it depends on the earth stations being cloudless. Therefore, space stations use the radio equipments to communicate with the ground. Radio waves successfully traverse the large distance overcoming the shielding effects of atmosphere. Electric energy used for the communication purposes can be generated by the solar power plant.
Controlling the space station
Space stations are equipped with special altitude control motors and thrusters
They can be used to navigate the space station in any direction and to control its motion. Thus the space station can orient its direction relative to the earth as well as to the direction of the rays of the sun.
The altitude control motors are electrical motors with the maximum rate of revolution and large rotor mass. Special brakes make it possible to rapidly lower or shut operations.
Let us now see the various applications of space station.