Spacecraft designed to carryout scientific missions are typically equipped with a large complement of science instruments.
(a) Dust Detector – Which detects velocity, mass, number of dust particles striking the instruments.
(b) Photometer – An optical instrument that measures the intensity of light from a source.
(c) Magnetometer - A device for measuring the strength and direction of the interplanetary and solar magnetic fields. They typically detect the strength of magnetic fields in three planes.
(e) Spectrometer - An optical instrument that splits the light received from an object into its component wavelengths then measures the amplitudes of the individual wavelengths.