|| Matter that is made up of antiparticles
(antiprotons, antineutrons, and positrons). When matter and antimatter
collide, they are both completely transformed into energy.
||An energy storage that
relies on chemical reactions to release stored energy.
||A large machine used
to spin something in circles at high speeds. The spinning causes objects
inside the centrifuge to experience high forces, pushing them against
||A rearrangement of atoms in compounds.
||A chemical reaction usually involving
the reaction of oxygen with another substance.
||A grouping of atoms
that are in some way bound to each other.
||When a spacecraft physically connects
with something else (usually a space station or another spacecraft).
||The product of an object's
mass and the rate at which it is accelerating. A force is what causes
objects to speed up or slow down. Examples are the pull of gravity
or a person pushing a vacuum cleaner.
||An energy source that converts the energy released by the combination of oxygen and hydrogen to water directly into electricity.
||A nuclear reaction in which two lighter atoms are fused together to form a heavier atom and a large amount of energy.
||Having to do with the
stomach, intestines, or other digestive organs.
||A common result of long
space missions due to the loud noises caused by computers, machines,
and various other things aboard spacecraft.
||A measure of how much
the momentum of an object has changed.
||A substance that does
not allow heat to pass through it easily. It can be used to either
keep heat out (such as blocking the sun's extreme heat), or keep heat
||An atom that has more or fewer electrons than protons, giving it a negative or positive charge.
||Atoms of the same element
with different numbers of neutrons.
||A unit used to measure
speed relative to the speed of sound. Mach 1 is the speed of sound,
Mach 2 is twice the speed of sound, etc.
||An environment with little, if any,
gravity, such as in space.
||A unit of measure such that a mole
of something is equal to 6.022*10^23 of that thing. This number is
important because a mole of protons or neutrons is about 1 gram. So
if an element has an atomic mass of 12 (the mass number given on a
periodic table), a mole of that element would have a mass of 12 grams.
Because atoms are so small, it is usually easier to work with moles
||A type of compound in
which the atoms of the compound are bound together by a sharing of
||The product of an object's mass
and velocity. It is the property of an object that determines how
easy it is to stop the object from moving.
||Three laws of nature
that are used extensively in mechanics, the branch of physics that
focuses on how things move.
||The weakening of bones due to loss
of calcium. In microgravity, bones have less stress on them and do
not require as much strength for support.
|| A state of matter consisting of
electrons and atoms stripped of their electrons. It is the most common
state of matter in the universe.
||A substance that shoots out one
end of a propulsion system that causes the spacecraft to move in the
||Changes in how people think and
act due to high stress and close confinement during long space flights
||A syndrome named for
its appearance that occurs when sinuses swell and blood shifts away
from the legs. This occurs in space as a result of microgravity.
||Energy that can travel
through space (as opposed to a form of energy such as heat, which
requires the presence of matter to travel). Radiation can be harmless,
like light or radio waves, or harmful, like gamma rays.
||A system that gives off or radiates heat.
||An isotope of an element that is
unstable and emits radiation.
|An electricity generator that gets energy from the heat caused by the decay of radioisotopes.
||A planned meeting between
a spacecraft and another object. This can include a spacecraft rendezvousing
with a space station, or a space probe rendezvousing with a planet
||A panel that is able
to convert light energy into electricity.
|Space adaptation syndrome
||The feeling of motion sickness often
experienced by astronauts due to microgravity.
||Free-floating particles in space
that range in size from tiny dust particles to large pieces of rock.
||The total impulse a propulsion system
can provide divided by the total weight of the fuel used to achieve
||The holding back of something to
prevent it from spreading.
||Objects that can convert thermal
energy directly into electricity.
||How hard the propellant of a propulsion
system pushes on a spacecraft.
||A special airplane used
by NASA to train astronauts, which freefalls for 20 seconds, providing
trainees with the feeling of a weightless environment.