Case Study 1
The City of Kinston is located on the banks of the Neuse River. It is the heart of manufacturing in Lenoir County. Kinston has always been at risk to flooding, as they could occur at any unexpected moment. The reason behind this danger is the location of Kinston, as it is located in the 50-year floodplain.
In September 1996, Hurricane Fran swept through Kinston City. Along with structures and buildings, Hurricane Fran simply dumped 16 inches of rain into the Neuse River Basin. The consequences were dreadful. A staggering total of more than 400 homes were wrecked, numerous businesses and infrastructure received damages as well from the flood, adding up to a staggering sum of tens of millions of dollars in damage and losses. In addition to this, the community faced other problems as well. Firstly, they experienced many severe environmental problems. The flood had caused the spilling of much raw and partially treated sewage into the Neuse River, thus polluting the environment. The unparalleled loss in property and economic losses along with the social and environmental problems made life hard for the residents here, and also for the government officials.
Case Study 2
Just a few days before the arrival of Christmas in 1955, Alameda Creek experienced a heavy downpour to the point of overflowing and spilling of floodwaters over the grounds of Fremont and Union City. According to historical and geological records, it has been found that the creek most probably has flooded in this manner every 50-100 years for countless years already.
Alameda Creek is known to be the largest stream that can be found in the country, draining all of Livermore Valley through Niles Canyon. Each flood that occurred caused another layer of sediments to be laid down on the flatlands of Fremont. However, this stopped once urban development took place. Countless layers of sand, silt, clay and gravel can be found in the soil in this area. These deposits put together will form a gently sloping fan-shaped deposit, otherwise known as an alluvial fan. This can be found spreading from the outlet of Alameda Creek.
With the intent of building new homes and business buildings on the fan of Alameda Creek, something had to be done about the flooding. Spurred on by the floods of 1955 and 1958, the residents voted and created the Alameda County Flood Control District. In addition, a flood control channel was constructed in order to carry floodwaters out to the bay. This 200 feet wide and 10 miles long channel was a much better improvement to the original creek bed, as it was able to hold a much larger amount of water. Since then, floods have not been able to cross this channel, and the natural occurrences of flooding have been put to an end.