The meaning of the *: See also
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A(back to top)
- Latin abrasio "scraping down"
The destructive effect of the rolling sea on the coasts. Also known as ocean-abrade.
- Latin accumulare "heap up"
Mechanical enrichment; the piling of heavy metal and/or liquid phases in the magma.
- Latin actualitas "timeliness"
One of geology's important investigational principles (by Lyell), according to which the same effects cause the processes relating to the history of the earth as in past.
- Quakes with smaller magnitude, which follow the larger quakes, their number are in a neighbourhood of more than a hundred or a thousand. They could do serious damage to the buildings damaged by the main quake despite their smaller magnitude.
- Latin agglomerare "closely press to one another"
Formless, often not solidified settlings consisting of rough, angular rubble.
In tighter meaning: accumulation of volcanic spreading product.
- Greek "formless"
Such matter, whose corpuscles don't show regular arrangement in spite of their solid state.
- anticline *synclinal
- Greek anti "against", klinein "to bend"
The upward-tending part of saddle-shaped stone fold.
- Greek "weak zone"
A zone, which can be found below the earth's crust in about 750—800 kilometres depth.
B(back to top)
- Greek bathosz "depth", lithosz "stone"
Extensive rock-body, which originated as a result of intrusion.
- Benioff zone *picture
- Wadati-Benioff zone
A dipping planar (flat) zone of earthquakes that is produced by the interaction of a descending oceanic crustal plate with a continental plate. These earthquakes can be produced by slips along the subduction thrust fault or by slip on faults within the downgoing plate as a result of bending and extension as the plate is pulled into the mantle.
- Greek biosz "life", szphaira "shpere"
Such zone of the earth's crust, which embraces the entirety of living organisms.
- Greek biosz "life", Latin stratum "layer", Greek graphein "to write"
Detritic, sedimentary rock, which consist of cemented, angular rock- or mineral-scraps.
C(back to top)
- concordance *discordance
- Latin concordans "harmonious, harmonise"
Deposition of stratifications with the same tilting and path.
- Latin conglomerare "to shape, to roll up"
Rough-grained detrial sedimentary rock; pedocal, sandy, ferrous or siliceous binding material is strengthens (cementing) the rounded granules.
- latin consolidare "solidify"
One phase of the "crumbly" continental deposit's turning into rock. (diagenesis)
- contact metamorphosis *metamorphosis
- contact transformation
The heat delivered by the invading magma frames the originally "cold" associated-rocks.
- Latin contractio "shrinkage"
Shrinking comes with the formation of splittings, lithoclases in cases of soils or magmatic rocks.
- Greek kozmosz "world", goneia "creation"
A science dealing with the evolution of the universe, in a narrow sense, with the evoltuion of the planetary systems.
- Greek kratynein "solidify"
The stable, hardened, consolidated part of the earth's crust, in contrast with mobile zones.
D(back to top)
- Latin denudare "strip"
- Latin depressus "lowly, deep-seated"
Morphological element = sinkation. It means sucking in (the sinking of original water level or thrust line) in hydraulics.
- Greek dia "after" genezisz "birth, origin, source"
Collective term for the process of becoming stone.
- Relative change of some body's cubage produced by external power impulse, change in temperature or other reason.
- discordance *concordance
- Latin discordia: "unevenness, strife"
Unequal deposition of the rock, namely the irregularity of the stratification.
- dislocation, disturbance
- Latin "faultage, displacement, shifting"
Tectonic (structural) or atectonic (not structural) process, which changes the primary spatial position, namely the deposition established at the formation of rocks.
- dune *barchane
Dome-like terrestrial formation accumulated by wind.
E(back to top)
- Greek endon "inside", genezisz "origin"
atribute of processes, occurrences connected to acting powers in the bowels of the earth.
- Greek épeirosz "mainland", genezisz "origin"
Long-continued rising or lowering of the crust's bigger parts.
- epicentre *hypocentre
- Greek epi "over", Latin centrum "centre"
The point of surface, which takes up place over an earthquake's focus (in the direction of Earth's radius).
- Latin aera "age, point of time"
- Latin erosio "outwash, corrosion"
Destructive activity of running water, wind or ice.
- Latin erumpare "throw out, fling out"
The outbreaking of magma from the interior of the earth.
- Latin ex "out", vapor "fume"
Vaporization. Matter precipitation through the evaporation or volatilization of solutions. For example: origin of rock-salt.
- Greek exon "outside", genezisz "origin"
Powers acting to the surface of the Earth.
- Latin expandere "extend"
Notion related to earth-dilatation theory or cubage-enlargement.
F(back to top)
- Latin "mien, figure, face"
The sum total of sediment's petrographic, palaeontological characteristics, which determined by the physical, geographical, geological terms of razing and accumulating zone.
- focal depth *in greater detail
- Distance of the hypocentre and the epicentre. (Shallow: 0 kilometre — 30 kilometres, Medium: 30 kilometres — 300 kilometres, Deep: 300 kilometres — 750 kilometres)
- focal mechanism *in greater detail
- It shows, that what kind of process is passed by in the hypocentre at the quake, how the fault plane took its position, what was the direction of the shifting and also could conclude to the main attributes of the tenseness area, which caused the quake.
- focus *focal depth
- Latin formatio "formation"
Layer-row, which originated in a certain period of the Earth history and definitely stand out against the under and above settling layers.
- Latin fumus "smoke, vapour"
Comprehensive name of volcanic gases and vapours, which gush out from splits and clefts.
G(back to top)
- Greek gé "earth" -> land-surveying
A branch of science, which is interested in the determination and representation of formations (on the surface of the earth and under the surface of the earth) dimensions and sites, the marking out of planned establishments predetermined places and as well as in the determination of position.
- Greek gé "earth"
Geoid, geometric body, the calculated shape of the Earth without relief.
- geologist *geology
- Greek Latin
- geology *geologist *hydrogeology
- Greek gé "earth" logosz "thesis"
Science of the earth's (earth's crust) composition and the regularity of histories.
- geosynclinal *synclinal
- Greek gé "earth", szyn "together", klinein "to bend"
Enormous hollow in the earth's crust (superficial morphologic notion).
- glacial *interglacial phase
- Latin glacies "ice"
Attribute of ice ages' deposits, formations.
- Latin glacies "ice"
Ice-flow: mass of snow, frozen up to ice, which slides slowly downwards in high mountains' valleys.
- Gondwana or Gondvana
- after the name of one East Indian tribe
Such part of the ancient-continent (Pangea), which included the dry lands of the southern hemisphere, generally until the Mesozoic era.
H(back to top)
- hydrogeology *geology
- Greek hydor "water", gé "earth", logosz "thesis"
Science of lode of underground waters, one branch of the applied geology.
- Greek hydor "water", logosz "thesis"
Science of water: its objective is to examine the water's outward forms, natural relations of it, and its interaction with the environment under and above the surface.
- Greek hydor "water", szphaira "shpere"
The water-cover of the Earth, firstly the oceans.
- hypocentre *focus *epicentre
- Greek hypo "lower", Latin centrum "centre"
Points in the depth of the Earth, which settled down where the rocks break or where the rock-bodies move in relation to each other; its depth could increase from some kilometres until 750 kilometres.
I(back to top)
- Latin inclinare "to bend"
1. The measure of a slope's leaning.
2. The included angle of the geomagnetic field's direction with the horizontal.
- Latin infiltratio "permeation"
Penetration or impregnation of dissolved matters to the pores and hollows of rocks.
- ingression *transgression *regression
- Latin ingressio "going in, entrance, advance"
The slow pressing forward of the oceans to such firm ground's territory, which is in the state of settling.
- Latin iniectio "immission"
1. The advance of fluid with magmatic origin or magmatic matter to a rock.
2. The incursion of salt-rocks to the sediments which are above it.
3. The allocation of chemical substances to the ground to stabilize and condense the subsoil.
- interglacial phase
- Latin inter "between", glacialis "iced, icy"
A warmer climatic period between two glacial eras.
- Latin intrudare "to deviate"
The ingression of larger masses of magma between coherent rocks.
- isoseismic line
- Junction-line of places exposed to earthquakes with the same strength on the map.
- Greek izosz "same", sztatisz "standing"
Theory relating to hydrostatical balanced status of the earth's crust (theory of natation).
L(back to top)
- lapilli *rapilli
- Latin lapillus "little stone"
Elemental part of mosaic, volcanic spreading product with the size of a peanut or walnut.
- Latin later "brick"
Type of ground. Laterite bauxite: bauxite variant formed in case of tropical climate.
- lava *magma
- Melted, glowing rock, which flows the surface on the occasion of eruptions.
- Latin litoralis "coastal"
Attribute of powers, processes, which are active in seashore area.
- Greek lithosz "stone", szphaira "sphere"
The external sector of the Earth, which contain the earth's crust and the earth's upper-crust. (The latter forms a mechanical unity with the previous.)
- We call the b positive number's a based (a > 0; a cannot equal with 1) logarithm that exponent, which we get, if we raise a to the b th power.
Symbol: a^logab = b; The natural logarithm: 10^lg b = b (The ^ sign means raising to a higher power)
M(back to top)
- magma *lava
- Greek "thoroughly kneaded paste"
Natural rock-melt, which fully flows on a higher temperature.
- Latin "extent"
The measure of the strength of the earthquake, which is determined from the seismogram. Can be calculated form the logarithm of the ground-movement's amplitude, it depends on the distance from the epicentre, decreased to such logarithm, to which they give arbitrarily zero value. The Richter's scale uses this expression.
- meander (meandering)
- Greek Maiandrosz, now Menderes, winding river on the west coast of Asia Minor
Vigorous river bend, firstly as a result of the sidling erosion.
- metamorphosis *contact metamorphosis
- Greek "transformation"
The transformation of rock's mineral substance in the earth's crust, because of the changes of temperature and pressure.
- Greek meta "across", szóma "body"
Transformation of minerals (rocks) on chemical way with the exchange of each element. In the first place, high temperature is necessary for it.
- Greek morf "form, shape", logosz "thesis"
Branch of science, which deals with the shapes of the earth's surface.
O(back to top)
- Greek orosz "mountain", genezisz "origin"
Formation of mountains.
P(back to top)
- Greek palaiosz "old, aged"
Palaeobotany, palaeoclimatology etc.
- Pangea *picture
- Greek pasz "whole", gé "earth"
Great, unified ancient-continent, which split up in the course of the Mesozoic era.
R(back to top)
- rapilli *lapilli
- Latin regio "region, territory, area, country"
Expanding over a large area, e.g. fault system.
- regression *ingression *transgression
- Latin "stepping back"
Movement backwards of the ocean.
S(back to top)
- Greek szeizmosz "earthquake"
Connected with earthquake.
- seismologist *seismology
- Greek szeizmosz "earthquake", logosz "thesis"
Researcher, scientist of seismology.
- Greek szeizmosz "earthquake", logosz "thesis"
Science, which deals with earthquakes. One branch of the geophysics, which deals with earthquakes, registers them, and the examination of the Earth's inner structure. We successfully understand the conditions of the earthquakes' origin, we are able to recognize the inner construction of our planet (e.g. We discovered the Earth's core).
- English shelf "border, edge"
Continental shelf, the edge of continents below the surface of the ocean, which expand from the coast to the start of the continental slope (from about 200 metres depth), which are strongly steep and extend towards the deep-sea. It has an increasing role in the world's rock oil and natural gas supplement.
- Latin solum "ground, earth" fluere "to flow"
Soil creep movement, earth-flow.
- Latin stratum "layer", Greek graphein "to write"
- English stress "tension"
Mean that tenseness state in tectonics, which come into being in a body in the course of the usage of it. Also known as guided pressure.
- Latin structura "construction, assembling"
- Latin subducere "to drive under"
Process of shoving-under, in the course of that one rock-plate (lithosphere-plate) slide under the other, along the so-called subduction zones.
- synclinal *geosynclinal *anticlinal
- Greek szyn "together", klinein "to bend"
Hollow, trough. Morphologically, sinkage, accumulation of settlings occur within it.
T(back to top)
- Greek tektonikosz "belonging to the architecture"
- terra rossa
- Italian "red soil"
Brick red, ground rich in mud-matter, which contain waterless ferrous compound; it originates in wet, warm climatic conditions, firstly on less clayey lime-rocks.
- French terrassa "stepped area"
Stepped area, which is made by fresh water, which slams into the rock of cushion or into the stream deposit dumped on its own.
- Latin terra "earth"
Continental, e.g. terrestrial deposit; sediment formed by land.
- transgression *ingression *regression
- Latin transgresszio "stepping over"
The advancing of the ocean towards the mainland.
V(back to top)
- Extrusive rock. Also called as effusivum.
W(back to top)
- Wadati-Benioff zone *Benioff zone
- See: Benioff zone