The Industrial Revolution in the latter half of the 18th century brought the great influence to the world. The conspicuous examples that steel and glass by large-scale production had caused it. However, those "new" architecture brought a decline of beauty-standard we frequently see in large-scale production. Moreover, for being piled up the reason that bad working conditions by the industrialization, William Morris refused the industrialism and the capitalism, he began the Arts & Crafts Movement pursued their ideal in the Middle Ages, when he lived in the middle of the 19th century.
The movement was carried on by the Art Nouveau, a huge artistic movement centered around Frace and Belgium. This movement, means "New Art" in French, distinguished by organic and sensual curves, disagreed about inorganic matters. The marked example is Le Castel Beranger (H. Guimard).
Furthermore, some movement in various places could be given definitions of new artistic movements. The Expressionism in Germany (the Secession in Wien) or the Constructivism in Russia had begun because of the same ground refusing the capitalism and the industrialism, though the backgrounds which have caused them were different.
The Art Deco in the 1920's was pretty different from those movements. The Art Deco, given geometric shapes put straight and curve lines together to prominence, often adopted industrial matters, metal and glass. That made it possible that the low-priced mass production imitated their appearances. The Art Deco depended on mass production, spread over the world. However the geometric shapes in the Art Deco wasn't born from the pursuit of rationalism and the functionalism, charactaristics of industrialization, but rather decoration which was equally regarded as most important by the Art Nouveau.
The biggest recipient was the industrial power, the United States of America. Chrysler Building（W. Van Alen, Newyork, 1928） is one of the masterpieces of skyscrapers by the Art Deco.
In the U.S. where the Art Deco is a general way, Frank Lloyd Wright (1867～1959) feared for the standardization of froms of architecture. Wright thought buildings must be organic, as accepted the industrialism and the rationalism, often used natural decorations. He is counted as one of the three great masters of archtiecture in 20th century. former Imperial Hotel (Inuyama, Aichi, 1922) is his masterpiece of buildings in Japan.
Wright criticized the Art Deco for an inorganic aspect, but who criticized it for its decorative aspect was one of the same three great masters, Le Corbusier (1887～1965). His insistence was "a house is a machine to live in", he ignored the traditional style of architecture and he take rational functions very serious. His new style of architecture was established by Vill Savoye (Poissy, France, 1928). Then, the current of the times revolved not around Wright but around Corbusier. In addition, the piloti was his creation that liberated architecture from the earth and the tradition.
The last one of the three great masters was Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886～1969). Mies had the same insistance as Corbusier's as pursuit of rational functions. However as Corbusier ignored the traditional architecture, Mies adopted industrial matters for building materials. His buildings mainly composed by glass and steel was conducted various experiments. By his masterpiece Farnsworth House (the State of Illinois, the U.S. 1951), dividing walls were disappeared, excluded the concept of "room" and made the multipurpose space named "Universal Space". His achievements, the excluding preconceived ideas and creating coexistence of the industry and the art, was pretty great.
The pursuit of functionnalism and the fusion of the industry and the art was taken over and called Modernism. Specially, glass and steel office buildings like Mies' have spread over the world against socioeconomic backgrounds.
However, as Modernism was full of functions, it was reconsiderd in the latter half of the 1950's, because it was inorganic and uniformed. Then after, for the architects supported it Corbusier and Miese left this world one by one, the tendency became decisive.
At another hand, around the rapid technical innovations, thought called Structure Impressionalism has occured. The feature was that the structure tying building materials like "Shell" covered large space and create the space flowing and energetic.
In the 1960's, people resisted against preconceived authorities and ideas in the whole world, those social backgrounds affected every fields of the art. In the architecture, it was called Post Modernism. Post Modernism was out of the pursuit of pure functionalism as the feature of Modernism, featured various or regionalized forms of architecture or placing symbols. The reform reached multicolored elements composed of architecture, not only in the modern architecture. This movement changed the present state of architecture strongly.
However, as the end of the structure caused by a cold war vanished the value of resistance against capitalism, Post Modernism had been forced to decline. Furthermore, because of the diversification in the information-oriented society, not only the society of the architecture but that of the general whole art, have no guidepost on present form.
Into the Meiji era, Japan adopted the Eastern style of architecture. But at last in the Taisho era, Japan had succeeded to receive the effection of the latest Easter artistic movement like "the Art Nouveau", they had experiments of high-class artistic styles, perticulary among young architects.
These movements of Modernism in Japan was interrupted by the rise of the military and the ultranationalism from the early Showa perio to the World War Ⅱ. After the war, during the improvement of Japanese economy in the high economic growth, the architecture which caused by importing Modernism was activated again by them.
Japan had also concerned with the world-scaled artistic movement, a shift from Modernism to Post Modernism. However it was too late in Japan, it have infiltrated to Japan in 1980's. Tsukuba Center Building (Tsukuba, Ibaraki 1983) by Arata Isozaki (1931～) was the masterpiece of the architecture of Post Modernism in Japan.