is spreading from the west. It was seen in Gyõr-Moson-Sopron county first.
Its migration is started in Germany with those 25 specimens which escaped in
the last days of the World War 2. In Austria it is not a rare animal.
Therefore, its appearance mainly in the western part of our country, even
its settlement is expected. The climate and its opportunities of nutrition
in Middle Europe is similar to those in its original home (North-America),
consequently it became acclimatized wonderfully in these areas. It likes
mixed and leafy forests, especially those in which it can find proper places
to hide and which are difficult to reach. If it is not bothered or hunted in
the forest, it will soon appear at rubbish dumps of cities. It loves the
environments of lakes and riversides, but it can appear anywhere during its
roaming. It got its name after its practice of dipping its nutrient into
water and it likes washing it, and also it gets shellfish, snails or fish
from water. Male specimens' bodies are stronger than females'. Its fur is
yellowish-gray mixed with black. Its tail is 25cm long and it ends in
blackish-brown color with some blackish-brown rings on it. It eats
everything that is eatable. It likes fruit, grain, soft corn cob, insects,
small vertebrata and birds' eggs. It can climb trees very well with its long
fingers which are capable of grasping. The typical remains of its food like
crab-crusts, cracked shellfish, leavings of fish can be found along lakes
and streams. If it is near a populated area it filches a chicken, a pigeon
or the eggs of these animals. On the outskirts of towns or on suburbs it
often visits dustbins as well. It is difficult to catch sight of it, because
living at night, therefore one can recognize its present by
its characteristic trails. Its lair is in hollows of trees, but it may lie
in clefts of rocks, on bundle-wood, or simply on a thick bough. A female is
capable of breeding even at the age of one year. In spring it bears
usually5-6 young animals after 60-63 days of pregnancy.
It is the only wild sheep in Europe, the ancestor of our
domesticated sheep, it comes from Corsica and Sardinia. Its introduction to
Hungary started at the end of the 19th century. Its body is covered by
nigger-brown fur, and there are saddle-like spots on each ram's sides, which
are called saddle-spots. Its senses of smelling and hearing are both good,
its eyesight is very good. It signals danger by whistling. A male is called
a ram, a female is a tag(from its second years of age till yeaning), then it
is called a ewe. A lamb is called either a young ram or an ewe-lamb. A ram
wears spiral horns, but sometimes a female has also got horns. The horns
grow from year to year, and the moufflon never takes them off as the
cervidae does. The two horns are very similar to each other, like each
other's reflexions in a mirror. There are more delicate and rougher rings,
grooves alternate each other. If a horn grows with its point to the inside,
it reaches the animal's cheek and makes it impossible for the animal to eat,
therefore it starves to death. This kind of horn is called a suicide-horn.
Moufflons live in flocks, which go to the pasture at dusk and return at dawn.
Their wandering is influenced by winter and summer. They move to cooler
valleys in summer, and spend the winter on southern slides. If a man is
approaching, moufflons wait for him, and then they run away, stopping for
looking back at their disturber several times. In such cases their voice
reminds one of whistling because they warn one another this way.
Its original home is the area of the Mediterranean, and Mesopotamia in the
Near-East. It was brought to France, Germany, England, The Scandinavian
states, Poland and the Baltic countries in the Middle Ages. It was
introduced to the Carpathian-Basin in the time of King Matthias. In the 18th
century it was naturalized in Wallachia and Moldavia, Romania by the Boyars
and voivodes. Today the fallow deer, as a naturalized wild animal species,
lives everywhere in Europe, America, Australia and in New-Zealand. Fallow
deers, who were set free or ran away from
preserves, found their home
everywhere in the Carpathian-Basin due to their outstanding adaptability. A
stag is also called a shovel-headed in sportsman's slang because of its
typical antlers. A female is a hind and a young fallow deer is a calf. A
stag in the second year of age grows its first antlers and in spring it
changes its antlers to one-branched (spit-like), then to two-branched
antlers(forked). These are followed by the 3rd year's spoon-like antlers.
The shovels on the antlers are growing more and more with the notchings and
spurs on their upper and back parts. Royal stags are the 10-12-year-old ones.
They can breed in preserves well. If they breed too rapidly, they may cause
much damage on cultivated lands and also for sylviculture and mainly in
orchards if they are not enclosed. Fallow deers like eating buds of trees,
young leaves and sprouts of bushes and trees but they also keep on pilfering
windfalls, watermelons and grapes. They eat feed-stuff and salt placed out
for them as well. Hungarian stock of fallow deers is one of the best in the
world, which is proved by the several world-record
It was brought to Hungary from France in the 1870's, and it is also called
“kinigli” in Hungarian. It lives mainly in Transdanubia, but it can also be
found in the environment of Gödöllõ. Its sense of hearing and its eyesight
are excellent, in case of fire it escapes into its underground channel.
A male is usually heavier, bigger than a female. It is similar to the brown
hare in color, it is a bit grayer. There is a rusty-red narrow stripe on its
neck, which ends in a wide spot between the rabbit's shoulder-blades. Its
stomach is light gray. The length of all four legs are almost the same, its
ears are much smaller than the brown hare's. Its
pelt and meat(white) era
well exploitable. The rabbit originally lives in its hole in the ground, and
it never moves away so much from its hole, so that it cannot escape into it
in case of danger. It can live anywhere if the quality of the ground allows
the animal to hollow out its underground channel. It likes sandy, loose soil,
chasmy, hilly areas and shrubby, bushy places, which can hide the animal.
The rabbit hollow its holes in such places and if it has got a family, it
makes a branching channel with pockets. The most populous stocks can be
found in Pest and Bács-Kiskun counties. Smaller stocks live in Gyõr-Sopron
county and near Hegyeshalom and Jánossomorja, in the environments of Vál and
Pusztaszabolcs, in Fejér county, and near Biatorbágy, Pest county.
As the brown hare, it nibbles and disbark trees. It is not faddy about its
food, it eats everything from grains to carrot. It eats every sort of
agricultural product. If the weather is fine it eats grassy, rank, bushy
areas near its warren. In cold windy and rainy weather it stays in its
burrow. It does not go far away from the warren. It it is frightened it goes
back to its warren quickly in zigzag line.
After 30 days of pregnancy a female bears 4-12 young rabbits in its underground
burrow. After bearing it becomes fertile again, therefore it is very
Spreading from the east the raccoon dog's present was first reported in 1961
in Vásárosnamény. It was noticed in the eastern part of the country as well
in Lónya and it was also seen in the environments of Paks, in Gödöllõ, in
Pécel and in Somogy. It spreads very dynamically. Although it cannot be said
that it settled permanently, it can appear at any part of the country. Its
original homeland is in the woods, tundras of Asia. It adapts to new
environments easily. Because of its great prolification, it spreads more and
more to the west. The parents stay together all over the year and they
mainly live in marshes with woods, on lowlands and in reeds but it can
appear at any place that has got rich vegetation. One should expect to meet
a raccoon dog near lakes and along streams. The first specimen was hunted in
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in 1961. It appears scatteredly in that area
Its fur is brownish-gray, its legs and its head from the mouth to the ears
are dark blue. On its back there are dark stripes forming crosses. A male
and a female are very similar to each other.
It settles in the warrens of foxes and badgers while wandering, but if there
are no ready-made homes, it hollows out its own one. It may rest in a cleft
of a rock or in a hollow of a tree, but it rarely climbs a tree. It is
mainly a night animal, it is difficult to meet one during the day. One can
conclude of its present by its waste.
Ondatra (Ondathra Zibethicus)
In Europe it was first introduced into Bohemia
in 1906. It started its conquering route in this country in 1915. At that
time one specimen was shot in Moson county, Hungary. Today they can be found
all over the country, Its life is bound to water because of its life style.
There is no great difference between sexes. Its fur is dark chestnut-brown
on its back, light gray on its stomach and brownish-black on its tail, which
is pressed at both sides. There are webs of palmipeds at its hind legs.
There is a scent-gland
at its inguirral region. It likes lakes and channels
most. It forms its lairs on channel-banks, in walls of dams or hollowed into
the riverside. Its lair has got several ways out, usually under the water.
These outlets become invisible in the case of low water. In shallow still
water it builds a castle-like construction of branches, reeds and sedges,
and it fastens it with mud. Its nest is 0.5-2m in diameter, which is above
water. If the water is too deep, it builds a foundation first and if water
is too shallow, it makes a hollow. The animal always keeps an eye on the
changes of the level of water and therefore it can always keep its lair dry.
It eats mainly water-weeds, corn-stalks, water insects, snails and perhaps
small fish. Ondatra is an aquatic animal, it lives its life at night or at
dusk. It prefers larger still water or slow rivers, and marshy places, or
those rich in water-weeds. It dives into water if it hears any noise.