dating with the help of radioactive elements found in rocks with various methods. The basis of the method is the time during which radioactive elements break down. The various elements develop to stabile elements through different half-times. Half-time is the duration of time while the half of the radioactive element forms into a stabile condition. From the proportion of the radioactive and the stabile material we can deduce to the age of the given material
mechanical accumulation: accumulation of volcanic debris or rocks accumulated by rivers (pebble), glaciers and wind (dune)
along the flow of material the oceanic crust dives under the mainland lamella, than creates centres of volanoes and earthquakes while melting
the measure of radiation’s reflection coming through the atmosphere in which the colour of the material has an outstanding role.
Calculation: ratio of the falling and the reflected amount of light
gases of the atmosphere whose amount does not change for a long time. E.g. nitrogen, oxygen, noble gases. The amount of changing gases alters within a few years or decades. The most important ones are: carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and ozone
the part of the atmosphere reaching 35 km from the surface including troposphere, tropopausa and stratosphere
different from the ordinary
atmospheric formation of high pressure bordered with almost rounded isobar. Its movement on the northern hemisphere is from left to right, spirally branching. They are extensive. Because of their descending breeze they cause bright weather with sunshine. They move slowly
130-160 km thick melted soft region at the lower part of the upper earth coat. Can produce flowing changes of shape
materials building rocks, which are crystallised chemical compounds. They are homogeneous, natural building units of the crust. Can be characterised with formulae. Can be organised differently according to their qualities. Frequent ones: felspar, piroxene, quartz, amfibole, olivine, etc.
falling out of geographical zonality
the branch of biology dealing with the geological spreading of living beings
the scene of life on earth. Includes those parts of the crust, air - and waters hell which are suitable for life and all the living beings there
formation of atmospheric pressure in the inside of which pressure declines towards the middle. Its movement on the northern hemisphere is from right to left. Its formation is frequent
circulation of atmospheric flow, such way that the particle of air on the move does not return to its starting point
air always contains more or less water. Precipitation is the firm or fluid water that quits water cooled under a certain level. They can be classed according to their development and physical condition. On the basis of the latter one, we can differentiate between fluid (dew, drizzle, downpour, cloudburst, permanent rain) and firm precipitation (snow, frost, hoarfrost, etc.). according to the place of their coming to exist, there is falling and that along the ground.
source of energy coming from the Sun and causing a key factor of the atmospheric phenomena. Radiation coming from the sun is a sequence of rays of different wave length. The length of the medium rays is 0.36-0.78 micron. These are rays of light, those falling into shorter wave length are the ultraviolet rays, the longer ones are the infrareds. Besides the radiation of light, temperature radiation is significant as well, and the expansion of energy in coruscular radiation is bound to material particles.
colourless, odourless gas. 75.5 % of the air’s weight and 78.8 % of its capacity. 16 % of proteins is nitrogen. Does not support oxidation
its sizes change but on an average 10000 km long, 1000-4000 m wide, 2-4 km high eminences from the ocean’s bed. Magma flows from its central gorges
heavier than the continental crust, forming a thin layer on the surface of the earth’s coat
mostly levelled surfaces surrounded with smaller and bigger tresholds on which wavy shape, hills are situated. These hills are of volcanic origin.
began 590 million years ago and ended 240 million years ago. Abrupt evolution of the fauna. The appearance of terrestrial plants and vertebral animals
a gas somewhat thicker than air. Essential for most living beings. 20.93% of the air’s volume and 23.14 % of its weight. Formation: photosynthesis and reductional chemical processes. 46.6% of the elements of the earth’s crust, 85.9% of the hydrosphere’s weight
oxygen of three atoms. Is present in the upper part of the atmosphere: ozonosphere. Blue gas with typical smell. Has a big role filtering the elements of solar radiation harmful for living beings
ozonosphere. The part of the atmosphere in 20-50 km height containing ozone. Its temperature reaches 60 Celsius degrees. Especially important for life on earth because it filters most of the ultraviolet rays
era relating to the history of earth. From the formation of earth until 2500 million years ago
the primeval atmosphere which came into existence at the time of the Earth’s creation was significantly different from that of today’s. Gases as result of volcanic activity had a role in its formation.: nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and methane. The concentration of oxygen was only 0.1 % of today’s
a branch of science dealing with animals that lived in the past of the earth’s history
laptified remnants of plants and animals that lived in the ancient times
those parts of the continents which were rolled already in the Archaean and by the Precambrian they were abandoned. They are of high stability; the lack of volcanity and tectonic disorders. They rise mildly since the Algonkian. Can be both covered and uncovered. If they are sediments of geological eras, e.g. flood of sea they could set on the surface and did not devastate, so the ancient massif is covered
climatic category of the highest level. According to Trewartha, we can differentiate between four climatic zones: tropical, subtropical, temperate and cold
the relative quantity of a given gas element of the atmosphere in a given moment is expressed in the percentage of the level of today’s atmosphere. The relation always follows the present level. Present Atmospheric Level
deduction to the past climate from the animals, plants, variations of soil and from other sings
magnetism in rocks and in some minerals is traceable tot he induction of the earth’s magnetic field in the age when rocks and minerals were formed
type of orbit
the type of spaceship’s and satellite’s orbit is settled while shaping the flight-plan due to the mission. If the orbit is in the plane of the Equator it is equatorial, if it is perpendicular to the Equator it goes through the poles on a polar orbit. The orbit enclosing an angle less than 90 degrees with the plane of the Equator is direct, the orbit of the opposite direction is retrograde. The direct type of orbit is the most advantageous because as a result of the earth’s rotation, the flying objects gain extra speed
unite proto-continent in Wegener’s theory on wandering of continents. Developed at the end of the Carboniferous and in the beginning of the Perm with the joining of Gondwana and Laurasia. Its dividing started around the beginning of the Mesozoic era. The disjoining of Pangea is the beginning of the formation of today’s continents
previously called Alluvium, lower period of the Quaternary. Formation of today’s vegetation and fauna, evolution into human. Changing of glacial and free-of-ice periods. Characteristic formations: loess, sand drift, morena. Stages: lowest Pleistocene (2,4 - 1.8 million years), lower Pleistocene (1.8 - 0.8 million years), middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.3 million years), upper Pleistocene (0.3 million years - 10200)
does not tell the time when the given rock was formed, only a comparative data. We can make a chronology of rocks or follow the course of an event. Used when there is no possibility for absolute dating
it is the same as the continental shelf, which is the continent’s border under seas and reaches from the coast continental slope reaching to the strongly leaning deep-sea
the rock lamellas forming continents are sometimes thicker than 40 kilometres and they are floating on top of the earth’s coat
branch of geophysics dealing with earthquakes: observation, registration, evaluation
mass of air floating above the surface of earth, parallel with it and horizontally that goes from the place with higher air pressure towards the area with lower air pressure. Its direction can be characherised which always means the cardinal point from which it blows. Its strength can be setted with the Beaufort wind scale. Its building and destroying work is deflation and eolic accumulation. Its moisture content, temperature and fluctuation can be given as well
most important component of the Venus’s and Mars’s atmosphere. In the case of the Earth its conventration is little since as a result of chemical and biological processes most part of it gets into sedimentary rocks where it is stored in the form of coal carbonates. Gas with greenhouse effect, the concentration in the air grows due to human activity. Most important cause of global warming
curves of islands
firstly comprised of volcanoes emerging as a result of the heating of the diving lamella
95% of the earth’s crust. Can be classified due to their structure. SiO4 tetrahedron - groups: they can be differentianted according to their size and way of connection: sorosilicates, cycosilicates, nezosilicates, phillosilicates, inosilicates, teclosil
theoretical climate, it would characterise the Earth if it was of homogeneous surface and a perfect globe and would be without atmosphere. Only solar radiation would determine climate
part of the atmosphere reaching 35 km high from the tropopause. Biatomic oxygen molecules unite into triatomic, i.e. ozone. Its temperature rises, formation of clouds happens only in an extreme case. Extremely low content of steam. Strong horizontally movement, the speed of wind may reach 360 km/h. Jet streams are found here. The composition of the air does not change but the quantity of the air’s components per unit volume is significantly fewer than in lower regions of the troposphere
change of the earth’s structure while the oceanic lamella dives under another lamella along a slanting plate
the area where of two meeting lamellas one dives under the other. Formation of deep-sea-troughs
state of supercontinent
when the scattered continents united into the supercontinent of Pangea and after its breaking into pieces, the present state was formulated
theory of supercontinent period
according to this theory the unity of continents into a supercontinent and its breaking into pieces is a cylcic process
theories of expansion. The development of earth is orogenezis, tectogenezis, volcanism and further phenomenon happening in the crust and on the surface, the main reason is the enlarging of the earth. Main representatives : László Egyed, C. Gilberg, H. Termier, W. H. Ramsey, etc.
the crust’s outer, loose cover, the determiner of plants’ fertility. With the joint of geological and atmospheric realtions, the living world creates it
we can get extra information we cannot gain directly with our organs of sense. It is comprised of collecting data with special instruments and processing-interpretation. Used mainly for the permanent survey of the natural resources and the evaluation of their changes
constant movement of water directed by the earth’s rotation and the coasts of continents being a result of constant system of winds and the drifting effect of sea water. Sea currents are usually closed systems; its hot and cold variations occur complementing each other
sediment settled in sea. Can be organic sediment of a material from mainland. According to depth of sea we can divide between shallow- and deep-sea sediments
part of the atmosphere between 82-500 km. The composition of material changes slowly, oxygen and nitrogen is present in great quantities but only in form of isolated molecules. Its temperature rises: 70 Celsius degrees on 100 km. Contains many ionized layers, these are very important in listening-in
hardened morena-marl from the glaciation of the Pleistocene
the advancing of sea, flooding of bigger areas of continents. The reason might be a rise of sea level or slow sinking of a continent
the atomosphere’s lower, thick part reaching to approximately 12 km. Formation of clouds and precipitation. Upper border: tropopausa. The direction of motions of air is vertical or horizontal. 4/5th of the atmosphere’s weight
develops from the volcanic ash getting to the surface. Its granulation is very altering, moreover volcanic bombs get into the basic material. Since its porous structure, it is light and is considered to be soft among rocks. (easy to hew - wine cellars of Tokaj)
began 654 million years ago
steak of solar radiation shorter than 3 micrometer, upper-atmospheric ozone mostly absorbs it. Its growing strength is a danger for the bisophere
after its cooling the volcano still provides different materials in a somewhat more peaceful form. Gases of various materials and temperature and water might rush even million years after the extinction of the volcano
the rock developed mostly in seas disintegrated by decaying than utilized rock while decomposition. Division: 1. Detric sedimentary (classical) rock 2. Chemical sedimentary rock 3. Organic sedimentary rock
phenomenon based on air’s ability of accumulation of heat. Its essence is that the atmosphere lets short wave rays well through the surface swallows them and so heats up. The heated surface lets out long wave radiation because of its cooler temperature. Greenhouse effect is caused not by the material of air itself but its content of steam and other materials (e.g. CO2)
gases of the atmosphere the amount of which changes within a few years and decades. Carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, ozone
in the ice age the ice put down the huge pieces of rocks carried on the surface and inside while melting
molecules in the compounds are built up of atoms of various elements. Extremely various molecules may develop from about 90 varieties of atoms
the place, form or creation where the material of magma reaches the surface. Types: stratovolcanoes, lava-columns, lava-cones, swelling-cones, shield-volcanoes. There are active and dead volcanoes. Most of them are found at the weakness-belts of Earth at low geographical latitudes.
might occur near active volcanoes as well. Their material: water emerging from volcanoes plus ash, this results in mud, bubbled by emerging gases.
besides steam chemicals of sulphur, mostly hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide emerges. Got its name after the Italian Slofatrata Crater. Often great quantities of sulphur separates out at these areas
emerging of gas polluted by various chemicals. If temperature is lower, thermal springs develop
emerging of carbon dioxide. If it is mixed with water, acid-waters develop. In Transylvania it is called acidulous water, in the mountains of Mátra : „csevice”
explosion like volcanoes:
produce few lava but much steam and gas. These run out from the funnel like an explosion whirling ash and pieces of rock with. Sometimes they explode the volcanic crater, creating calderas.
e.g. Cracatau, Volcano, Mt. Pelée
produce lava only, no explosion, ash
mixed type of volcanoes:
produce materials of both type. Volcanic activity begins with explosion of steam and gas followed by throwing of debris and ends in overflow of lava. In the building volcanic cone layers of tuff and lava vary, stratovolcanoes
e.g. Vesuv, Etna, Stromboli
developed in rivers, lakes, seas right under the surface of water which might get above the surface with the decrease of sea level. Types: rock, sand, coral; belt-shelf, island-shelf, barring-shelf
Formation of precipitation
Precipitation is water of fluid or firm physical condition coming to being through the condensation of the air’s proportion of water reaching the surface of the earth. Both three physical conditions of water can be found in the atmosphere. When the temperature of the air decreases under a certain degree, it becomes oversaturated and a part of its steam is deposited. In the case of surface precipitation the deposition occurs directly at the surface of objects ( hoarfrost, frost, dew). Creation of precipitation is preceded by clouding. The cooling of air might have various reasons. In the case of conventive creation of rainfall hot air cools while the steam is moving upwards. In the case of orographic creation of precipitation the warming up - and at the same time cooling down - of air is forced by the terrain. Advecitve precipitation is created when air has a scrubbing movement on warm front.
The middle era of the earth’s history. Got its name after the typical rocks found in Devon county, England.
Ancient carnivore or herbivore reptiles living between the Triassic and the Cretaceous pursuing a continental way of life. Their skin might have been armoured of flat. Their size is extremely differing from the size of a cat to huge variations reaching the height of 30 m.
Thick or grainy rock developing mainly from coral limestone comprised of dolomite minerals. Many varieties might develop through regional metamorphoses. It is named after Dolomien, a French mineralogist. It creates whole ranges in the Alps.
Classification of climate
Classification on the basis of different aspects help the orientation within the earth’s various climates. The Greeks carried out the first classification - they set the climatic zones on the basis of parallels. The basis of Köppen’s classification is temperature and rainfall, Trewartha takes the qualities of air into consideration. The latter one differentiates between 16 climatic zones: 1. tropical rainforest, 2. savannah, 3. tropical dry savannah, 4. cool coastal desert, 5. subtropical steppe, 6. mediterranean, 7. subtropical with wet summer, 8. oceanic with mild winter, 9. wet continental with long hot season, 10. wet continental with short hot season, 11. temperate zonal steppe, 12. temperate zonal desert, 13. oceanic sub-polar, 14. continental sub-polar, 15. tundra, 16. permanent frost.
Precise, unambiguous, clearly defined
Created by smoothly changing electric and magnetic field. Light is also an electromagnet wave. Their quality is characterized by their length. Remarkable electromagnet waves are: x-ray, infrared, radio wave.
The whole of electromagnet rays of different wavelength give the electromagnet spectrum. Vibrations of the longest wavelength are D.C. and A.C., shorter ones are radio waves followed by infrared and the domain of visible light. Visible lights are a small part of the spectrum. We see rays of different length as different colours. Wavelength of x-ray and ultraviolet are even shorter.
Extension of the polar ice and glacier in certain geological eras to those areas which are permanently without ice.
The geological era before the Cambrian
(Coriolis power) diverting power occuring due to the earth’s notion as a result of which movements on the northern hemisphere swing out to the right, on the southern to the left.
Short-process movements not charging the structure of the crust and expanding to great areas and are of great importance from the point of view of the development of geological shell. Modify the arrangement of oceans and mainlands together with the earth’s expansion.
Carried down and devastated by erosion
Surface creating activity of external powers (water, river, rain, wind, ice, etc...)
Source of energy
The whole of available natural source of raw materials and means of production of economic life
Strongly changing gases
Those gases of the atmosphere the amount of which might change significantly within a few days. E.g.: steam, carbon dioxide, ammonia and sulphur dioxide
Raising of the world’s sea level caused by melting of ice sheet or a decrease of the oceans’ capacity
Those materials created by evaporation (anhydrite, salt)
Separation of material through steaming or evaporation (separating of salt from sea water)
The period determined by notable geological dates emerging as a result of the earth’s revolving round the Sun and the skewness of the earth’s axis. E.g.: in the northern temperate zone the 21th March is the beginning of spring, 22th of June the beginning of summer, 23th of September the beginning of autumn, 22 th December the beginning of winter.
Name of the upper atmosphere’s part above 500 km which is extremely thin but still contains atomic oxygen and nitrogen. Its temperature is the same as that of the thermosphere. Can be divided into three sub-groups: heliosphere, protonosphere, magnetosphere.
Mass of small waterdrops and or ice crystals floating in the atmosphere. Its form around the soil is called fog.
The rise of the atmosphere’s average temperature and its expanding through the whole earth due to human activity. Mainly caused by the use of fossile fuels.
The part of the atmosphere above 82-500 km the part of which are: E layer, thermosphere, F1 layer, F2 layer, tropopausa, plus the exosphere above 500 km. Nitrogen and oxygen are still the most significant gases in the thermosphere having many ionized layers. Aurora borealis is created here as well
Vegetation; the mass of a given area’s or geological era’s plants
From the deeper layers of the earth’s coat the magma flows up to the bottom of the litosphere in form of pillar or cylinder. 60-120 km is its diameter. More than a thousand km long. Usually exists at one place for longer period: (more than 10 million years) e.g.: Afar triangle, Iceland, Hawaii Islands, etc.)
The process in which plants create compounds essential for their growth and multiplication with the help of the sunlight’s energy from water and carbon dioxide. Its other important product is oxygen gas emitted by plants into the air.
Three main systems of wind joining each other give its base. These are the system of trade winds, western winds and polar winds.
Around the 25th latitude of the northern and southern hemisphere a zone of high pressure is situated which is a starting point of trade winds. Trade winds move with a speed of 6 m/s as an average. On the northern hemisphere they blow towards the Equator first from a northern, then from a north-western direction.
They succeed on both hemispheres between the 30th and 60th latitude. their impetus are on the one hand the jet streams waving quickly in the upper border of the troposphere the speed of which is 350 km/h. their direction is western-like but wriggle since the unevenness of the earth. The deeping curls of wriggle create cyclones and anti-cyclones.
Rule the areas close to the poles, the reason of their development is thermal. The cooled air flows to southern and northern direction but as a result of the elusive power their direction becomes north-eastern and eastern, and south-eastern and eastern. Periodically blowing winds (monsoon) and local winds (coastal wind, föhn, mountain - valley wind)
The most important group of minerals grouping the earth’s crust in 60-65 % : they are anhydrous alkaline or lime - aluminium - silicates. Their diversity is based on the fact that they develop in high and low temperature
The environment surrounding all living beings including natural and artificial objects of the environment
Concomitant of the crust’s movements. According to their reasons they can be divided into three groups: 90% of the quakes is of tectonic origin and on average - these are the biggest and most destroying ones. 7% can be attributed to volcanic origin and finally 3% is “sinking quake” the result of falling in of under-surface hollows and caves. The power of the quake is measured with magnitude scale and Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale of 12 degrees of earthquake.
Geological setting of chronolgy
The history of the earth is connected to geological time - schedule. This eases the dating and grouping of rocks, minerals and fossils. The periods and eras are named after the territory where their first discovery is connected or after their characteristic formations (Cretaceous, Carboniferous)
Salt-material separated out from sea mineral forming layers and rocks. It is created by secondary formation where sulphide minerals oxidize and Ca is present. Its structure is monoclinic, prismal and layer-bar like. Its crystals are mostly board-like, have the shape of a prism or a needle, frequently macles. Translucent of viteous lustre, colorless, yellowish or whitish
Material transported and deposited by ice. Can be divided further into moraine material deposited by ice itself and into glacio-fluvial sediment settling from melted water.
According to the theory today’s continents belonged to the ancient continent called Pangea. This ancient continent was situated on the southern hemisphere in the first half of the Palaeozoic era. At the end of this era the continent was disjointed and its pieces were floating away. The creator f the theory is Alfred Wegener. Continents and oceans are made up of pieces of lamellas moving off or approaching. These might dive each other, slip next to each other in the presence of strong tectonical accompanying processes (eartquakes, magmatism, etc.). The followers of the theory of wandering continents share the opinion that the mountain ranges of Earth were rolled up by the melting and crashing of rock lamellas and they played a significant role in the development of island curves. The existence of the once unite Continent is proved by the fact that at the borders of the diversion rock of same age and qualities were found.
General gravitation showing itself in the fact that any body shows an inverse rating of direct pull with the square of their distance
Type of mountains developed with the rolling and emerging of sedimentary rocks
The border dividing the crusts in the earth’s layered structure. Many surfaces of this kind can be showed with seismic researches which are indicators of the changes in materials inside the earth. Some properties of the earthquake waves change on the surface, e.g. their speed. There are strongly and weakly appearing surfaces. The powerful ones are: Mohororovicic (30 km), Gutenberg - Wiechert (2900 km); weaker ones are: Conrad (15 km), Repetti (986 km), Lehmann - surface (5100 km)
Formation of mountains
Orogenezis: the process of the earth’s structure while mountains roll up and rise
The earth’s water cover including seas, inland waters, under-surface waters in all three physical conditions
Sand strengthened with matrix. On the basis of the matrix’s classification, there are clay-bearing, ferriferous, pedocal, etc. Porous, so it is a great storer-rock. It can have various colours
One of the megascopic sentinels of material characterizing thermal condition. Has various units of measure: Celsius degree, Kelvin degree, Reaumur degree, Fahrenheit degree
The difference between the monthly, daily or annual average temperature of the parallel counted from radiation data. According to whether the deviation is negative or positive, we speak about negative and positive temperature anomaly. Temperature anomaly might be a result of the closeness of seas, hot sea-currents; negative temperature anomaly a result of distance from seas, cold sea-currents and local factors: height, surface, etc.
Dark coloured, colloidal organic matter mixture of soil
Set state of the atmosphere’s physical properties and processes in a given place through a shorter period ( a few hours or days)
A domain of magnet rays in the magnet spectrum. Also called radiation of heat
A longer period of hot climate between two glacials
The part of the atmosphere being above the stratosphere in ionized condition and leading electricity. Can be caused by natural, ultra-violet, x-ray, cosmic, neutron or other ray. Its indexes: 1. thickness, 2. height from the earth. Van Allen zones can be counted to ionosphere. Temperature is rising, can be thousands of Celsius degree
The nucleus of elements contain protons and neutrons. The number of protons is the same in each atoms of a given element but the number of neutrons might differ. The elements with different number of neutron but the same number of proton are called the isotops of an element
A period in the history of the earth when the otherwise non-glaciated areas were covered with inland ice sheets and glaciers. Its reasons are to be searched in the changes of climate. Witnesses are glacigen sediments, striae. No overwhelming theory of their development
Terrible natural disaster
The earth’s crust stretches between the surface of continents, oceans, seas and the Moho surface. Its average thickness: 30-40 cm. The upper part’s thickness is like that of granite and granodiorite: 2,8 g/cm3 , the lower part is like plateau - basalt: 3,0 g/cm3 . the crust is the thickest under cordilleras (50-70 km). Basic types: oceanic, sub-continental (transitional), continental
The smallest lamps of the solar system. The biggest asteroid is Ceres, with a diameter of only 700 km. At present there are about 2000 asteroids recorded. Most of them revolve on the orbit between Mars and Jupiter around the Sun
Flow of the material about 100-600 km deep in the earth’s coat because of the difference in temperature and density. Has an important role in the movement of rock lamellas
Bend towards each other, unite; advance towards the same aim, goal
Conventional flow of materials
The heat of the earth’s core induces heat in the material of the earth’s coat. The flowing material heats up, spreads on the surface, than sinks again. The flow of materials whirls along the rock lamellas
Thalloid animals of firm shell living in hot, shallow seas. They build huge cliffs and shelves
Mutuality, mutual relation; depending on each other, correspondence to each other
Flow of elementary particles of great energy and charge in cosmic area
Reaches from the Moho surface (30 km) to the Gutenberg - Wiechert surface (2900 km)
Flammable sedimentary rock of organic origin. Brown or black containing a maximum 30% of inflammable constituent. Originate in hot and wet climate from the plants of paludal forests. While decomposition lignite, brown coal, coal and blind coal come into existence. Carbonization can happen only under the top-layers, closed form air through a long time. Coal developed in Carboniferous, brown coal in Triassic
Era relating to the history of the earth; the medial stage in the development of life, began 240 million years ago, ended 65 million years ago. Further division: Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
Mezosphere, the part of the atmosphere falling between 50-85 km. Ozone layer is found at its lower part that filters the rays of Sun harmful for living beings
Mineral group of great mass having a leading role in the building of the earth’s crust. On the basis of their mineral composition there are: homogeneous (limestone, calcium sulphate) and complex rocks (granite). On the basis of their origin: magmatic, sedimentary, metamorph. More than 90% of the surface rocks are of the five main types: 1. snakestone, 2. limestone, dolomite, 3. sandstone, 4. basaltic rocks, 5. granitoids
Comprising 28% of the surface of rocks, built up of prismal crystals having mass appearance or crypto-crystal structure, having various colours and nuances, magmatic mineral forming rocks
Melting of rock reaching the surface while volcanic eruption. The chemical composition of the magma and the lava is the same still rocks originating from them differ since the different circumstances of their cooling down. Their temperature: 1000-1300 Celsius degree. Stiffing quickly becomes affusive rock blistery, rich in gas
The earth’s gas cover. Its mass and thickness is fewer than the other spheres of earth. The uppermost border of its extension is about 36.000 km where molecules can step to the cosmic space but the atmospherical composition is quite varied up to this point. Basic gases, guest gases and dirt have an important role in its composition of material. Basic gases: oxygen, nitrogen; noble gases: argon, krypton, xenon, neon, helium, radon, hydrogen. Guest gases: ozone, carbon dioxide, steam. Dirt: powder, salt crystals, smoke, ash, soot, pollen, backteria. 99% of the atmosphere’s mass is in the lower area of 80 km
Weight of a column of air of a surface of a unit, the value of which on sea level is 1033 g/cm2 (1 atmosphere)
The earth’s outer, stiff belt of rocks. The earth’s crust and the coat’s upper, stiff layer
The earth’s central area under a depth of 2900 km. Can be divided into two: inner and outer core, probably in a depth of 5100 km. Probably of solar material
Melting of rock inside the earth containing steams and gases emerging towards the surface under pressure. Main components are these eight oxides: potassum oxide, sodium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, ferro-oxide, ferri-oxide, aluminium oxide, silicon oxide. Other elements are water and evaporative materials. Can be grouped on the basis of depth as well. The outer rocks have a great pressure on the magma. The magma’s temperature is 650-900 Celsius degree
One of the regions of the exosphere. The movement of its electric elements is based on the earth’s magnetic field
About 3,5 billion years ago the Earth lost its primary atmosphere of solar origin ( H2 and noble gases). Then the secondary atmosphere developed from gases of volcanic activity (H2O, SO2, N, CO, CO2, NH3, CH4). The origin of atmospheric oxygen is not volcanic but photo-dissociational and biogene
Limestone (calcium carbonate)
Sedimentary rock of calcium carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite)
Solid particles revolving in the solar system the size of which might differ, occasionally they get to the earth’s atmosphere. When the earth crosses a pack of meteor creating a cloud, more meteors than usual light in the atmosphere, this is the meteorite shower
Close to the ground level, in smaller given regions, developing of particular conditions, essentially the climate of a micro-area. In comparison with the macroclimate, there are great differences in temperature, relative moisture content and other areas
The uneven heating of sea and mainland causes difference of air pressure causing motion of air; practically an 180 degree change in the wind’s direction. Winter and summer variations of it. In winter blows from the direction of the mainland, above the continent its air pressure is high, above the ocean its air pressure is low. In summer the contrary is true